KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04260
ko04260                     Pathway                                

Cardiac muscle contraction
Contraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation of voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels (DHP receptors) upon membrane depolarization triggers the release of Ca2+ via Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through a Ca2+ -induced Ca release (CICR) mechanism. Ca2+ ions released via the CICR mechanism diffuse through the cytosolic space to contractile proteins to bind to troponinC resulting in the release of inhibition induced by troponinI. The Ca2+ binding to troponinC thereby triggers the sliding of thin and thick filaments, that is, the activation of a crossbridge and subsequent cardiac force development and/or cell shortening. Recovery occurs as Ca2+ is pumped out of the cell by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) or is returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps on the non-junctional region of the SR.
Organismal Systems; Circulatory system
Pathway map
ko04260  Cardiac muscle contraction

H00594  Distal myopathy
H00656  Scapuloperoneal myopathy
H00698  Nemaline myopathy
H00701  Congenital fiber type disproportion
H00702  Cap myopathy
H00703  Myosin storage myopathy
H00728  Brugada syndrome
H00746  Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP)
H00775  Hemiplegic migraine
H00811  Distal arthrogryposis
H00831  Primary dystonia
H01019  Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
H01216  Left ventricular noncompaction
H01219  Restrictive cardiomyopathy
H01355  Kearns-Sayre syndrome
H01368  Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency
H02086  Mitochondrial complex III deficiency
Other DBs
GO: 0060048
K04850  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K04862  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-1
K04863  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-2
K04864  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-3
K04865  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-4
K04858  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-1
K04859  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-2
K04860  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-3
K04861  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-4
K04866  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1
K04867  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2
K04868  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3
K04869  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4
K04870  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-5
K04871  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-6
K04872  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-7
K04873  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-8
K04962  ryanodine receptor 2
K00476  aspartate beta-hydroxylase [EC:]
K23445  calsequestrin 2
K23449  triadin
K23450  sarcoplasmic reticulum histidine-rich calcium-binding protein
K05853  P-type Ca2+ transporter type 2A [EC:]
K05865  troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
K12044  troponin I, cardiac muscle
K12045  troponin T, cardiac muscle
K10373  tropomyosin 1
K10374  tropomyosin 2
K09290  tropomyosin 3
K10375  tropomyosin 4
K12314  actin, alpha cardiac muscle
K17751  myosin heavy chain 6/7
K10351  myosin regulatory light chain 2
K12749  myosin light chain 3
K12750  myosin light chain 4
K00411  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase iron-sulfur subunit [EC:]
K00412  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome b subunit
K00413  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c1 subunit
K00414  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 1
K00415  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 2
K00416  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 6
K00417  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 7
K00418  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 8
K00419  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 9
K00420  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 10
K02262  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3
K02256  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [EC:]
K02261  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
K02263  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4
K02264  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5a
K02265  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b
K02266  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6a
K02267  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b
K02268  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6c
K02270  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7a
K02271  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7b
K02272  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7c
K02273  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8
K05849  solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger)
K12041  solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 6/7
K01539  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha [EC:]
K01540  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
K01538  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma (FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2)
K05742  solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 1
C00076  Calcium cation
C00080  H+
C00238  Potassium cation
C01330  Sodium cation
Bers DM
Calcium cycling and signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Annu Rev Physiol 70:23-49 (2008)
Bers DM
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.
Nature 415:198-205 (2002)
Endoh M
Signal transduction and Ca2+ signaling in intact myocardium.
J Pharmacol Sci 100:525-37 (2006)
Endoh M
Cardiac Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ sensitizers.
Circ J 72:1915-25 (2008)
Bers DM, Despa S
Cardiac myocytes Ca2+ and Na+ regulation in normal and failing hearts.
J Pharmacol Sci 100:315-22 (2006)
Gordon AM, Homsher E, Regnier M
Regulation of contraction in striated muscle.
Physiol Rev 80:853-924 (2000)
Phrommintikul A, Chattipakorn N
Roles of cardiac ryanodine receptor in heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
Int J Cardiol 112:142-52 (2006)
Lacinova L
Voltage-dependent calcium channels.
Gen Physiol Biophys 24 Suppl 1:1-78 (2005)
Lingrel J, Moseley A, Dostanic I, Cougnon M, He S, James P, Woo A, O'Connor K, Neumann J
Functional roles of the alpha isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 986:354-9 (2003)
Berg JS, Powell BC, Cheney RE
A millennial myosin census.
Mol Biol Cell 12:780-94 (2001)
Parmacek MS, Solaro RJ
Biology of the troponin complex in cardiac myocytes.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 47:159-76 (2004)
Yamashita H, Sugiura S, Fujita H, Yasuda S, Nagai R, Saeki Y, Sunagawa K, Sugi H
Myosin light chain isoforms modify force-generating ability of cardiac myosin by changing the kinetics of actin-myosin interaction.
Cardiovasc Res 60:580-8 (2003)
Pritchard TJ, Kranias EG
Junctin and the histidine-rich Ca2+ binding protein: potential roles in heart failure and arrhythmogenesis.
J Physiol 587:3125-33 (2009)
Landstrom AP, Dobrev D, Wehrens XHT
Calcium Signaling and Cardiac Arrhythmias.
Circ Res 120:1969-1993 (2017)
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway

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