EC                  Enzyme                                 

betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase;
betaine aldehyde oxidase;
betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase;
Acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
betaine-aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH + 2 H+ [RN:R02565]
(other) R02566
betaine aldehyde [CPD:C00576];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
betaine [CPD:C00719];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. This enzyme is involved in the second step and appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In contrast, different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, this reaction is catalysed by EC (choline monooxygenase), whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC (choline oxidase) [5]. In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).
EC created 1961, modified 2005, modified 2011
ec00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
K00130  betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
K14085  aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1
HSA: 501(ALDH7A1)
PTR: 462033(ALDH7A1)
PPS: 100970731(ALDH7A1)
GGO: 101148545(ALDH7A1)
PON: 100461726(ALDH7A1)
NLE: 100583462(ALDH7A1)
MCC: 702749(ALDH7A1)
MCF: 102120771(ALDH7A1)
CSAB: 103245164(ALDH7A1)
RRO: 104677423(ALDH7A1)
RBB: 108537700(ALDH7A1)
CJC: 100401828(ALDH7A1) 100410565(ALDH7A1)
SBQ: 101045920(ALDH7A1)
MMU: 110695(Aldh7a1)
MCAL: 110285158(Aldh7a1)
MPAH: 110333007(Aldh7a1)
RNO: 291450(Aldh7a1)
MUN: 110562122(Aldh7a1)
CGE: 100756509(Aldh7a1)
NGI: 103740420(Aldh7a1)
HGL: 101711696(Aldh7a1)
CCAN: 109699996(Aldh7a1)
OCU: 100344302(ALDH7A1)
TUP: 102495542(ALDH7A1)
CFA: 481486(ALDH7A1)
VVP: 112917127(ALDH7A1)
AML: 100475712(ALDH7A1)
UMR: 103670577(ALDH7A1)
UAH: 113261663(ALDH7A1)
ORO: 101372739(ALDH7A1)
ELK: 111148305
FCA: 101086623(ALDH7A1)
PTG: 102951788(ALDH7A1)
PPAD: 109250945(ALDH7A1)
AJU: 106970741(ALDH7A1)
BTA: 507477(ALDH7A1)
BOM: 102285292(ALDH7A1)
BIU: 109561847(ALDH7A1)
BBUB: 102391870(ALDH7A1)
CHX: 102187125(ALDH7A1)
OAS: 101108127(ALDH7A1)
SSC: 106504110(ALDH7A1)
CFR: 102512958(ALDH7A1)
CDK: 105089785(ALDH7A1)
BACU: 103018812 103019170(ALDH7A1)
LVE: 103087111(ALDH7A1)
OOR: 101279003(ALDH7A1)
DLE: 111182376(ALDH7A1)
PCAD: 102990841(ALDH7A1)
ECB: 100063766(ALDH7A1)
EPZ: 103557440(ALDH7A1)
EAI: 106842819(ALDH7A1)
MYB: 102247575(ALDH7A1)
MYD: 102754535(ALDH7A1)
MNA: 107540928(ALDH7A1)
HAI: 109379078(ALDH7A1)
DRO: 112314805(ALDH7A1)
PALE: 102880590(ALDH7A1)
RAY: 107498603(ALDH7A1)
MJV: 108401917(ALDH7A1)
LAV: 100656260(ALDH7A1)
TMU: 101361542
MDO: 100009965(ALDH7A1)
SHR: 100930576(ALDH7A1)
PCW: 110223911(ALDH7A1)
OAA: 100074256(ALDH7A1)
GGA: 426812(ALDH7A1)
MGP: 104915364(ALDH7A1)
CJO: 107306701(ALDH7A1)
NMEL: 110389971(ALDH7A1)
APLA: 101793275(ALDH7A1)
ACYG: 106046528(ALDH7A1)
TGU: 100223716(ALDH7A1)
LSR: 110467766(ALDH7A1)
SCAN: 103821480(ALDH7A1)
GFR: 102042249(ALDH7A1)
FAB: 101806923(ALDH7A1)
PHI: 102106824(ALDH7A1)
PMAJ: 107198296(ALDH7A1)
CCAE: 111941214(ALDH7A1)
CCW: 104690506(ALDH7A1)
ETL: 114069037(ALDH7A1)
FPG: 101917601(ALDH7A1)
FCH: 102052577(ALDH7A1)
CLV: 102091436(ALDH7A1)
EGZ: 104124248(ALDH7A1)
NNI: 104016339(ALDH7A1)
ACUN: 113489748(ALDH7A1)
PADL: 103914477(ALDH7A1)
ASN: 102368427(ALDH7A1)
AMJ: 102563610(ALDH7A1)
PSS: 102458471(ALDH7A1)
CMY: 102940167(ALDH7A1)
CPIC: 101937973(ALDH7A1)
ACS: 100560663(aldh7a1)
PVT: 110077534(ALDH7A1)
PBI: 103049565(ALDH7A1)
PMUR: 107283290(ALDH7A1)
TSR: 106537542(ALDH7A1)
GJA: 107112391(ALDH7A1)
XLA: 108707197(aldh7a1.S) 447522(aldh7a1.L)
XTR: 549131(aldh7a1)
NPR: 108799792(ALDH7A1)
DRE: 334197(aldh7a1)
SRX: 107715563(aldh7a1)
SANH: 107657454(aldh7a1)
SGH: 107573911(aldh7a1)
CCAR: 109097311(aldh7a1)
IPU: 108277325(aldh7a1)
PHYP: 113543635(aldh7a1)
AMEX: 103034062(aldh7a1)
EEE: 113589019(aldh7a1)
TRU: 101066288(aldh7a1)
LCO: 104931924(aldh7a1)
NCC: 104947674(aldh7a1)
MZE: 101482988(aldh7a1)
ONL: 100699093(aldh7a1)
OLA: 101157525(aldh7a1)
XMA: 102233064(aldh7a1)
XCO: 114150635(aldh7a1)
PRET: 103464136(aldh7a1)
CVG: 107103171(aldh7a1)
NFU: 107392683(aldh7a1)
KMR: 108230647(aldh7a1)
ALIM: 106511506(aldh7a1)
AOCE: 111565984(aldh7a1)
CSEM: 103393055(aldh7a1)
POV: 109625620(aldh7a1)
LCF: 108881294(aldh7a1)
SDU: 111217230(aldh7a1)
SLAL: 111650170(aldh7a1)
HCQ: 109522068(aldh7a1)
BPEC: 110160079(aldh7a1)
MALB: 109958202(aldh7a1)
SASA: 100194754(aldh7a1)
OTW: 112220006(aldh7a1) 112242863
SALP: 111961923(aldh7a1)
ELS: 105021749(aldh7a1)
SFM: 108929860(aldh7a1)
PKI: 111861025(aldh7a1)
LCM: 102356888(ALDH7A1)
CMK: 103182361(aldh7a1)
RTP: 109914520(aldh7a1)
BFO: 118409632
CIN: 100184485
SPU: 588376
APLC: 110981183
SKO: 100370075
DME: Dmel_CG9629(Aldh7A1)
DER: 6543557
DSE: 6618402
DSI: Dsimw501_GD12292(Dsim_GD12292)
DAN: 6493640
DSR: 110190220
DPE: 6602384
DMN: 108151959
DWI: 6643070
DNV: 108651977
DHE: 111604532
DVI: 6622382
MDE: 101888197
LCQ: 111687514
AALB: 109412183
AME: 411140
BIM: 100747121
BTER: 100648169
CCAL: 108627760
OBB: 114876201
MPHA: 105833498
AEC: 105151044
ACEP: 105619807
PBAR: 105422187
VEM: 105566549
HST: 105181543
DQU: 106746805
CFO: 105258160
LHU: 105668398
PGC: 109862314
OBO: 105285166
PCF: 106790004
NVI: 100499205
CSOL: 105366902
MDL: 103568681
TCA: 658395
ATD: 109609044
NVL: 108564650
BMOR: 101735616
BMAN: 114249252
PRAP: 110996914
HAW: 110372538
TNL: 113491734
API: 100159019
DNX: 107173527
AGS: 114122915
RMD: 113550006
BTAB: 109031859
CLEC: 106664902
ZNE: 110841255
FCD: 110857963
PVM: 113805908
TUT: 107369629
DPTE: 113798509
PTEP: 107453898
CEL: CELE_F01F1.6(alh-9)
CBR: CBG09070(Cbr-alh-9)
PCAN: 112553791
CRG: 105327683
MYI: 110455019
OBI: 106871909
NVE: 5502556
EPA: 110236278
ADF: 107348248
AMIL: 114950886
PDAM: 113675597
SPIS: 111337300
HMG: 100198995(aldh7a1)
ATH: AT1G54100(ALDH7B4) AT1G74920(ALDH10A8) AT3G48170(ALDH10A9)
GMX: 100170731(BADH2) 100170755(BADH1) 100811186 547717(TP55)
LJA: Lj4g3v1561610.1(Lj4g3v1561610.1) Lj6g3v1177340.1(Lj6g3v1177340.1)
RCU: 8258123
SLY: 100301929(amadh2) 101252968 101253497(SlADH10A9)
DOSA: Os04t0464200-01(Os04g0464200) Os08t0424500-01(Os08g0424500) Os09t0440300-01(Os09g0440300)
ATS: 109749955(LOC109749955) 109765608(LOC109765608) 109774117(LOC109774117)
ZMA: 100282748 100302679(gpm154) 541949(AMADH2) 606443
MNG: MNEG_6416
APRO: F751_6155
MGR: MGG_09456
SSCK: SPSK_04247
MAW: MAC_07974
MAJ: MAA_01887
CMT: CCM_01703
MBE: MBM_01793
ANI: AN1430.2
ANG: ANI_1_1222144(An16g09060)
ABE: ARB_05104
TVE: TRV_07864
PTE: PTT_10408
SPO: SPCC550.10(meu8)
CNE: CNA07130
DFA: DFA_02437
SPAR: SPRG_06143
ECO: b0312(betB)
ECJ: JW0304(betB)
ECD: ECDH10B_0299(betB)
ECOK: ECMDS42_0235(betB)
ECE: Z0399(betB)
ECS: ECs0358
ECF: ECH74115_0374(betB)
ETW: ECSP_0367(betB)
EOI: ECO111_0346(betB)
EOJ: ECO26_0346(betB)
EOH: ECO103_0289(betB)
ECOO: ECRM13514_0540(betB)
ECOH: ECRM13516_0288(betB)
ESL: O3K_19940
ESO: O3O_05360
ESM: O3M_19920
ECK: EC55989_0314(betB)
ECG: E2348C_0274(betB)
EOK: G2583_0416(betB)
ELH: ETEC_0368
ECW: EcE24377A_0327(betB)
EUN: UMNK88_359(betB)
ECP: ECP_0387
ENA: ECNA114_0303(betB)
ECOS: EC958_0464(betB)
ECV: APECO1_1678(betB)
ECX: EcHS_A0371(betB)
ECM: EcSMS35_0343(betB)
ECY: ECSE_0333
ECR: ECIAI1_0309(betB)
EUM: ECUMN_0350(betB)
ECT: ECIAI39_0374(betB)
EOC: CE10_0277(betB)
EBR: ECB_00268(betB)
EBL: ECD_00268(betB)
EBE: B21_00271(betB)
EBD: ECBD_3346
ECI: UTI89_C0341(betB)
EIH: ECOK1_0306(betB)
ECZ: ECS88_0320(betB)
ECC: c0432(betB)
ELO: EC042_0345(betB)
ESE: ECSF_0290
EKF: KO11_22040(betB)
EAB: ECABU_c04080(betB)
EDJ: ECDH1ME8569_0300(betB)
ELW: ECW_m0386(betB)
ELL: WFL_01895(betB)
ELC: i14_0417(betB)
ELD: i02_0417(betB)
ELP: P12B_c0331(betB)
ELF: LF82_0220(betB)
ECOI: ECOPMV1_00315(betB)
ECOJ: P423_01695
SFV: SFV_0323(betB)
EEC: EcWSU1_01154(betB) EcWSU1_03723(betB)
ECHG: FY206_06985(betB)
ESA: ESA_02048
CSK: ES15_2204(betB)
CTU: CTU_19210(betB)
KPU: KP1_1529(betB)
KPP: A79E_3656
KPR: KPR_3974(betB) KPR_4626
KPX: PMK1_02912(betB_2)
KPNK: BN49_1639(betB)
KVA: Kvar_3784
KPE: KPK_3994(betB)
KOX: KOX_13815
KOE: A225_1582
CKO: CKO_02583
RTG: NCTC13098_01034(betB_1)
CLAP: NCTC11466_01223(prr_1) NCTC11466_02244(betB_1)
YPE: YPO1166(betB)
YPH: YPC_1226(betB)
YPA: YPA_1074
YPN: YPN_2835
YPM: YP_0993(betB)
YPZ: YPZ3_1056(betB)
YPD: YPD4_1015(betB)
YPX: YPD8_1112(betB)
YPW: CH59_678(betB)
YPJ: CH55_3927(betB)
YPV: BZ15_2391(betB)
YPL: CH46_3966(betB)
YPS: YPTB1196(betB)
YPO: BZ17_1331(betB)
YPI: YpsIP31758_2830(betB)
YPY: YPK_2916
YPB: YPTS_1276
YPQ: DJ40_1045(betB)
YPU: BZ21_459(betB)
YPR: BZ20_796(betB)
YPC: BZ23_790(betB)
YPF: BZ19_594(betB)
YRO: CH64_1867
SMAR: SM39_0956(betB) SM39_3549
SRL: SOD_c13930(betB1) SOD_c39130(betB)
SPLY: Q5A_007565(betB_2) Q5A_020970(betB_3)
SFJ: SAMEA4384070_1555(betB_2) SAMEA4384070_4072(betB_4)
SOF: NCTC11214_02675(gbsA) NCTC11214_05410(betB_3)
RAA: Q7S_06705
EAME: GXP68_14125(betB)
ECA: ECA1745(betB)
PATR: EV46_08340
PATO: GZ59_28570(betB)
PCT: PC1_2555
PPUJ: E2566_13265(betB)
DDD: Dda3937_03412(betB)
DIC: Dpoa569_001468(betB)
EAM: EAMY_1714(betB)
EAY: EAM_1686(betB)
ETA: ETA_17820(betB)
EPY: EpC_18730(betB)
EPR: EPYR_02019(betB)
EBI: EbC_19410(betB) EbC_23310
ERJ: EJP617_28500(betB)
EGE: EM595_p0485(betB)
ERWI: GN242_09355(betB)
PAM: PANA_2167(betB)
PLF: PANA5342_2004(betB)
PAJ: PAJ_1483(betB)
PVA: Pvag_1615(betB)
PSTW: DSJ_15130
PANS: FCN45_22350(betB)
PEY: EE896_08345(betB)
MINT: C7M51_01275(prr) C7M51_02641(betB)
MTHI: C7M52_00216(betB) C7M52_01471(prr)
TPTY: NCTC11468_02282(prr) NCTC11468_03209(betB_2)
PLU: plu2349
PAY: PAU_01173(ydcW)
PMR: PMI1460(betB)
PMIB: BB2000_1490(betB)
PCIB: F9282_10515(betB)
XBO: XBJ1_0079(ydcW) XBJ1_3307(betB)
XBV: XBW1_0096 XBW1_3662(betB)
XNE: XNC1_1245(betB) XNC1_2270(ydcW)
XNM: XNC2_1220(betB) XNC2_2191(ydcW)
XDO: XDD1_1183(betB) XDD1_1920
PSX: DR96_2629(betB) DR96_2714
PRG: RB151_015530(betB_2) RB151_040050(betB_3)
PHEI: NCTC12003_02530(betB_2)
PRQ: CYG50_08405(betB)
PRJ: NCTC6933_01534(betB_2)
PAET: NCTC13378_00690(attK_3)
XCC: XCC3403(betB)
XCB: XC_0761
XCA: xcc-b100_0794(betB)
XCP: XCR_3741(betB)
XCV: XCV0775(betB)
XAX: XACM_0719(betB)
XAC: XAC0719(betB)
XCI: XCAW_03863(putA)
XFU: XFF4834R_chr07270(betB)
XPH: XppCFBP6546_16530(XppCFBP6546P_16530)
SML: Smlt2238(betB)
SMT: Smal_1833
SMZ: SMD_2019(betB)
DYE: EO087_04055(betB)
VVU: VV2_1687
VVY: VVA0507
VPA: VPA1113
VAG: N646_4061
VSP: VS_II0057
VAN: VAA_01522
VAU: VANGNB10_cII0723(betB)
VTA: B0191(betB)
VCC: FAZ90_18490(betB)
AWD: AWOD_II_1234(betB)
PPR: PBPRB1746(Z0399)
SALY: E8E00_09005(betB)
SKS: FCN78_04445(betB)
SCOT: HBA18_04685(betB)
PAE: PA3504 PA5373(betB)
PAEV: N297_3627 N297_5558(betB)
PAEI: N296_3627 N296_5558(betB)
PAU: PA14_70950(betB)
PAP: PSPA7_6158(betB)
PAG: PLES_57681(betB)
PAF: PAM18_5493(betB)
PAEP: PA1S_29045
PAEM: U769_29545
PAEL: T223_29505
PAEU: BN889_05963(betB)
PAEG: AI22_04945
PAEC: M802_5556(betB)
PAEO: M801_3492 M801_5423(betB)
PMY: Pmen_0482
PMK: MDS_0518
PPSE: BN5_0372(betB)
PCQ: PcP3B5_07990(betB_2) PcP3B5_31730(gbsA_1) PcP3B5_34590(gbsA_2) PcP3B5_61130(betB_4)
PPU: PP_0708 PP_5063(betB)
PPX: T1E_0194(betB) T1E_5715
PPUN: PP4_45650 PP4_51260(betB)
PST: PSPTO_0441(betB)
PSB: Psyr_4733
PSYR: N018_01790
PSP: PSPPH_4767(betB)
PFL: PFL_2912 PFL_4811(gbsA) PFL_5767(betB)
PPRC: PFLCHA0_c29580(betB1) PFLCHA0_c47910(gbsA) PFLCHA0_c57210(betB2)
PFS: PFLU_1502 PFLU_5685(betB)
PFB: VO64_2570
PEN: PSEEN0373(betB) PSEEN0848
PSA: PST_1745(betB)
PSZ: PSTAB_1639(betB)
PSR: PSTAA_1761(betB)
PLUL: FOB45_25945(betB)
PKC: PKB_0826(ALDH10A9) PKB_2230 PKB_4681 PKB_5709(betB)
PSOS: POS17_4788(gbsA) POS17_5703
PALL: UYA_02195
PAR: Psyc_0729(betB)
PSYC: DABAL43B_1030(betB)
PSYA: AOT82_1050
ABM: ABSDF2439(betB)
ABY: ABAYE2837 ABAYE2867(betB)
ABB: ABBFA_02425(prr) ABBFA_02631(betB_2) ABBFA_02660(betB_3)
ABAD: ABD1_08800(betB) ABD1_09090 ABD1_11020(ydcW)
ACI: ACIAD1009(betB)
ASJ: AsACE_CH01397(betB)
AGU: AS4_33630(betB) AS4_33780
ALW: FOB21_01610(betB)
SDN: Sden_0714
SFR: Sfri_1947
SBL: Sbal_1324
SSE: Ssed_1120
SPL: Spea_1008
SHL: Shal_1058
SWD: Swoo_1197
SWP: swp_3810
SVO: SVI_1655(betB)
SPSW: Sps_03536
SPOL: FH971_10230(betB)
SKH: STH12_03785(gbsA)
CPS: CPS_0096 CPS_1333(betB1) CPS_4011(betB2)
PHA: PSHAb0419(betB)
PTN: PTRA_b0609(betB)
PAT: Patl_2588
PSM: PSM_B0494(betB)
PSEO: OM33_19480
PEA: PESP_b0685(betB)
PSPO: PSPO_b0608(betB)
PART: PARC_b0652(betB)
PNG: PNIG_b0572(betB)
PTD: PTET_b0615(betB)
PSEN: PNC201_19700(betB)
PAGA: PAGA_b0787(betB)
MAQ: Maqu_3841
MHC: MARHY3769(betB)
MAD: HP15_3626(betB)
MARJ: MARI_20380(betB)
AMAL: I607_13555
AMAE: I876_13940
AMAO: I634_13785
AMAD: I636_13935
AMAI: I635_14310
AMAG: I533_13550
AMAC: MASE_13420
GPS: C427_1066
SALK: FBQ74_10540(betB)
PIN: Ping_2071
MVS: MVIS_3006(betB)
MMAA: FR932_03590(betB)
MICC: AUP74_02645(betB)
MICT: FIU95_10085(betB)
LPN: lpg0238(gbsA)
LPH: LPV_0320(betB)
LPO: LPO_0277(betB)
LPM: LP6_0239(gbsA)
LPF: lpl0292
LPP: lpp0308
LPC: LPC_0314(gbsA)
LPA: lpa_00426
LPE: lp12_0242
LHA: LHA_0256(gbsA)
LCD: clem_13885(gbsA)
LCJ: NCTC11976_00391(gbsA)
SPIZ: GJ672_08700(betB)
GAI: IMCC3135_31335(betB_4)
HCH: HCH_00850(betB)
HCO: LOKO_01220(betB) LOKO_01641(gbsA)
HBE: BEI_0087(betB1) BEI_1084(betB2) BEI_1548(betB3) BEI_3362(betB4)
KUY: FY550_10370(betB)
PAUR: FGL86_11375(betB)
ADI: B5T_02865
AXE: P40_20275
MPRI: MP3633_3485(gbsA)
OAI: OLEAN_C35550(betB)
NIK: F5I99_11615(betB)
BMAR: HF888_09065(betB)
ASA: ASA_0843(betB)
OCE: GU3_07770
SALN: SALB1_2617
NBL: GJV52_07935(betB)
NZO: SAMEA4504057_0506(betB)
CSTE: H3L98_07515(betB)
CHAE: CH06BL_11310(gbsA)
PSE: NH8B_1370
RSO: RSc1456(betB)
RPI: Rpic_4502
REH: H16_B2130(betB)
CNC: CNE_2c06800(aldA) CNE_2c20940(betB) CNE_BB1p11670(betB1) CNE_BB1p12950(betB2)
CTI: RALTA_B0573(betB1) RALTA_B1831(gbsA)
BMA: BMAA0915(betB)
BMAL: DM55_4194 DM55_4470(betB)
BMAE: DM78_3325 DM78_3524(betB)
BMAQ: DM76_3420(betB) DM76_4894
BMAF: DM51_4600(betB) DM51_4981
BMAZ: BM44_4158 BM44_4499(betB)
BMAB: BM45_3280 BM45_3623(betB)
BPS: BPSS1354(betB)
BPSE: BDL_4192 BDL_4656(betB) BDL_5494(amadh1)
BPSM: BBQ_4797(betB) BBQ_5233
BPSU: BBN_4363 BBN_4796(betB)
BPSD: BBX_3819(betB) BBX_4660(amadh1) BBX_6032
BPK: BBK_3534 BBK_3959(betB)
BPSH: DR55_3925(betB) DR55_4432
BPSA: BBU_4690(betB) BBU_5127
BPSO: X996_3713(betB) X996_4140
BUT: X994_5769(betB) X994_6221
BTD: BTI_3860(betB) BTI_5723
BOK: DM82_5077 DM82_5542(betB)
BOC: BG90_5069(betB) BG90_5518
BVE: AK36_3331(betB)
BCEN: DM39_4701 DM39_4870(amadh1) DM39_5521(betB) DM39_5966
BMJ: BMULJ_04980(betB)
BUB: BW23_3495(betB) BW23_5497
BGU: KS03_5149 KS03_5351(betB)
BUK: MYA_3053
BUL: BW21_5410 BW21_5853(betB)
BGP: BGL_2c01280(gbsA1) BGL_2c07450(betB) BGL_2c18780(gbsA2)
PMEG: FNZ07_10315(betB)
PPUL: RO07_15695
PSPU: NA29_22325
PLG: NCTC10937_00666(betB_1)
HYF: DTO96_100429(aldA)
LMIR: NCTC12852_00559(betB)
CABA: SBC2_55180(betB_2) SBC2_60640(gbsA_1) SBC2_80010(gbsA_2) SBC2_81270(gbsA_3)
BAV: BAV1908(betB)
BHZ: ACR54_00461(aldA) ACR54_01612(phdK_1) ACR54_02117(betB_2) ACR54_02253(phdK_2)
AXX: ERS451415_05536(aldA)
PUT: PT7_0905
AMIM: MIM_c20990(betB)
BPSI: IX83_01675
RHG: EXZ61_17810(betB)
POL: Bpro_3685
DAC: Daci_0960
VPD: VAPA_1c32520(aldA)
HYC: E5678_02310(betB)
HPSE: HPF_15795(gbsA)
CFU: CFU_1108 CFU_1149(betB)
CPRA: CPter91_3937(betB)
MEH: M301_1305
DSU: Dsui_0125
AZA: AZKH_p0150(betB)
PCA: Pcar_1701
DFL: DFE_3318
DMS: E8L03_18655(betB)
DPI: BN4_10270(gbsA)
PPRF: DPRO_1092(betB)
PSEL: GM415_09865(betB)
DBA: Dbac_2823
DRT: Dret_0129
HOH: Hoch_4370
MLO: mll7608
MHUA: MCHK_1077(betB) MCHK_5434
AMIH: CO731_04446(betB_2)
RPOD: E0E05_16020(betB)
SME: SMa1731(betB2) SMc00094(betB)
SMI: BN406_00604(betB1) BN406_03854(ALDH10A9) BN406_04510 BN406_04688(betB2)
SMD: Smed_0563
ATU: Atu0829(betB)
ARA: Arad_1352(betB) Arad_7226(betB)
ATF: Ach5_07470(betB)
AVI: Avi_1147(betB)
AGR: AGROH133_04538(betB)
AGC: BSY240_1542(betB)
AGT: EYD00_02400(betB)
ALF: CFBP5473_11475(betB)
REL: REMIM1_CH01139(betB)
RLE: RL1271(betB) RL1823
RLG: Rleg_0890
RTR: RTCIAT899_CH04950(betB)
RIR: BN877_I0811(betB)
RPUS: CFBP5875_02690(betB)
RHL: LPU83_1116(betB)
RHN: AMJ98_CH01172(betB)
RPHA: AMC79_CH01179(betB)
RHK: Kim5_CH01270(betB)
REZ: AMJ99_CH01251(betB)
RGR: FZ934_02365(betB)
ROY: G3A56_06665(betB)
NEN: NCHU2750_06690(betB)
BMEL: DK63_21(betB)
BMI: BMEA_A0589(betB)
BMZ: BM28_A0563(betB)
BMEE: DK62_853(betB)
BMF: BAB1_0576
BMB: BruAb1_0574(betB)
BABO: DK55_578(betB)
BABR: DO74_1310(betB)
BABT: DK49_340(betB)
BABB: DK48_1539(betB)
BABU: DK53_567(betB)
BABS: DK51_892(betB)
BABC: DO78_485(betB)
BMS: BR0552(betB)
BSI: BS1330_I0548(betB)
BSF: BSS2_I0536(betB)
BSUI: BSSP1_I1157(betB)
BSUP: BSPT1_I1167(betB)
BSUV: BSPT2_I1152(betB)
BSUC: BSSP2_I0561(betB)
BMT: BSUIS_A0580(betB)
BSZ: DK67_1476(betB)
BSV: BSVBI22_A0548(betB)
BOV: BOV_0553(betB)
BCS: BCAN_A0564(betB)
BOL: BCOUA_I0552(betB)
BCAR: DK60_629(betB)
BCAS: DA85_02615
BMR: BMI_I551(betB)
BPP: BPI_I585(betB)
BPV: DK65_809(betB)
OAN: Oant_2710
OAH: DR92_2192(betB)
RPC: RPC_0853
OCA: OCAR_4993
OCG: OCA5_c29650(betB)
OCO: OCA4_c29220(betB)
AZC: AZC_1184
SNO: Snov_3030
ANC: GBB76_09075(betB)
APRA: G3A50_06285(betB)
HMC: HYPMC_1873(betB) HYPMC_3784(ALDH10A)
PLEO: OHA_1_02269(betB)
MMED: Mame_00834(betB_1) Mame_00849(gbsA_1) Mame_04617(betB_2) Mame_05099(phdK)
HDI: HDIA_4710(betB)
RBM: TEF_11255
CSE: Cseg_1720
SIL: SPO0084(betB)
RUT: FIU92_15465(betB2)
RSP: RSP_2183(betB)
RCP: RCAP_rcc00897(betB)
RDE: RD1_2023(betB)
RLI: RLO149_c011680(betB)
PDE: Pden_1897
PAMN: JCM7685_1240(betB)
PKD: F8A10_07215(betB)
DSH: Dshi_3717
PSF: PSE_0427(betB)
PGA: PGA1_c21670(betB2)
PGL: PGA2_c20590(betB2)
PGD: Gal_01233
PHP: PhaeoP97_02134(betB2)
PPIC: PhaeoP14_01978(betB2)
OAT: OAN307_c11370(betB)
OAR: OA238_160p1110(hpcC) OA238_c05880(betB)
OTM: OSB_22380(betB)
OCT: FTO60_04465(betB)
LEJ: ETW24_07265(betB)
LAQU: R2C4_11345(betB)
LABT: FIU93_01725(betB1) FIU93_07115(phdK) FIU93_08835(gbsA1)
SPSE: SULPSESMR1_00648(betB)
SDO: SD1155_02885(betB)
SPOT: G6548_06585(betB)
RID: RIdsm_00656(gbsA_2) RIdsm_00906(phdK) RIdsm_02762(betB_2) RIdsm_03420(betB_4)
LVS: LOKVESSMR4R_02137(betB)
HML: HmaOT1_05530(betB)
PSEB: EOK75_12595(betB)
LIT: FPZ52_13970(betB)
OCD: FHY55_05670(betB)
MARU: FIU81_04965(betB)
ROT: FIV09_06095(betB) FIV09_12230(phdK)
PAED: G5B38_21500(betB)
MON: G8E03_15895(betB)
TGL: HFZ77_06990(betB)
THAS: C6Y53_01525(betB)
FAQ: G5B39_13350(betB)
HNE: HNE_2219
SPHD: HY78_03565
SECH: B18_08905
ACR: Acry_0990
AMV: ACMV_08970(betB)
GXL: H845_1029
KSC: CD178_03073(betB)
ASZ: ASN_3328
TXI: TH3_10840
BSU: BSU31060(gbsA)
BSR: I33_3190(betB)
BSL: A7A1_2216
BSH: BSU6051_31060(gbsA)
BSUT: BSUB_03320(gbsA)
BSUL: BSUA_03320(gbsA)
BSUS: Q433_16975
BSS: BSUW23_15080(gbsA)
BST: GYO_3384(betB)
BSO: BSNT_09556(gbsA)
BSQ: B657_31060(gbsA)
BSX: C663_2957(gbsA)
BLI: BL02564(gbsA)
BLD: BLi03270(gbsA)
BLH: BaLi_c33410(gbsA)
BAY: RBAM_028160(betB)
BAQ: BACAU_2802(betB)
BYA: BANAU_3004(gbsA)
BAMP: B938_14395
BAML: BAM5036_2726(gbsA)
BAMA: RBAU_2927(gbsA)
BAMN: BASU_2732(gbsA)
BAMB: BAPNAU_2990(gbsA)
BAMT: AJ82_15925
BAMY: V529_30710(gbsA)
BMP: NG74_02960(gbsA)
BAO: BAMF_2872(gbsA)
BAZ: BAMTA208_15140(gbsA)
BQL: LL3_03169(gbsA)
BXH: BAXH7_03104(gbsA)
BQY: MUS_3384(gbsA)
BAMI: KSO_005120
BAMC: U471_29130
BAMF: U722_15185
BSON: S101395_01222(betB)
BHT: DIC78_15990(betB)
BWW: bwei_1473(gbsA1) bwei_3645(gbsA2)
BMYC: DJ92_4002 DJ92_474(gbsA)
BPU: BPUM_2735
BPUM: BW16_14845
BPUS: UP12_14105
BAG: Bcoa_3318
BJS: MY9_3113
BACW: QR42_13910
BACP: SB24_14670
BACB: OY17_17385
BACY: QF06_13835
BACL: BS34A_33980(gbsA)
BALM: BsLM_3094
BGY: BGLY_3657(gbsA)
BBEV: BBEV_3197(gbsA)
BALT: CFN77_14795(betB)
BFD: NCTC4823_00096(gbsA_1) NCTC4823_00921(gbsA_2) NCTC4823_03635(gbsA_5)
BCL: ABC0980(gbsA)
GGH: GHH_c19810(gbsA1)
GEA: GARCT_01451(gbsA)
HHD: HBHAL_1448(gbsA)
HLI: HLI_08140(betB) HLI_08505(betB)
VIL: CFK37_09385(betB)
VNE: CFK40_01995(betB)
VPN: A21D_02194(gbsA)
VIM: GWK91_01825(betB)
AQT: FN924_02665(betB)
GRC: GI584_04230(betB)
SALE: EPH95_15000(betB)
POF: GS400_02115(betB)
BSE: Bsel_0170
SAU: SA2406(gbsA)
SAV: SAV2613(gbsA)
SAW: SAHV_2597(gbsA)
SAM: MW2532(gbsA)
SAS: SAS2498
SAR: SAR2691(cudA)
SAC: SACOL2628(betB)
SAX: USA300HOU_2606(betB)
SAA: SAUSA300_2546(betB)
SAE: NWMN_2510
SUU: M013TW_2590(betB)
SUJ: SAA6159_02509(gbsA)
SUK: SAA6008_02670(gbsA)
SUC: ECTR2_2466(betB)
SUQ: HMPREF0772_10578(betB)
SUZ: MS7_2617(betB)
SUX: SAEMRSA15_25170(cudA)
SUW: SATW20_27510(cudA)
SUG: SAPIG2660(betB)
SUF: SARLGA251_23850(cudA)
SAUA: SAAG_00432
SAUE: RSAU_002453(gbsA)
SAUS: SA40_2367(cudA)
SAUU: SA957_2451(cudA)
SAUG: SA268_2548(cudA)
SAUZ: SAZ172_2730(cudA)
SAUT: SAI1T1_2019510(gbsA)
SAUJ: SAI2T2_1019520(gbsA)
SAUK: SAI3T3_1019510(gbsA)
SAUQ: SAI4T8_1019520(gbsA)
SAUV: SAI7S6_1019510(gbsA)
SAUW: SAI5S5_1019450(gbsA)
SAUX: SAI6T6_1019460(gbsA)
SAUY: SAI8T7_1019490(gbsA)
SAUF: X998_2594(betB)
SAB: SAB2487c(cudA)
SUY: SA2981_2551(gbsA)
SAUB: C248_2672(cudA)
SAUC: CA347_2689(betB)
SAUR: SABB_02022(gbsA)
SAUI: AZ30_13665
SAUD: CH52_05945
SAMS: NI36_13100
SER: SERP2177(betB)
SEP: SE2166
SEPP: SEB_02169
SEPS: DP17_1103(betB)
SHA: SH0428(gbsA)
SHH: ShL2_00334(gbsA_2)
SSP: SSP0195
SCA: SCA_2163(cudA)
SLN: SLUG_03660(cudA)
SDT: SPSE_0240(betB)
SPAS: STP1_1123
SXO: SXYL_00225(cudA)
SHU: SHYC_01665(betB)
SCAP: AYP1020_1792(gbsA)
SSCH: LH95_01505
SSCZ: RN70_01845
SAGQ: EP23_08475(betB)
SSIF: AL483_11510(betB)
SPET: CEP67_07125(betB)
SSCU: CEP64_00360(betB)
SKL: C7J89_03000(betB)
SFQ: C7J90_04245(betB)
SHOM: EGX58_05875(betB)
SMUS: C7J88_06730(betB)
SCAR: DWB96_01620(betB)
SFF: FOB90_06290(betB)
SDP: NCTC12225_00290(betB)
SCHR: DWB92_01415(betB)
PMW: B2K_35285
PLV: ERIC2_c09340(gbsA)
ASOC: CB4_00047(gbsA_1) CB4_02976(gbsA_2)
AAD: TC41_0785
PLAY: DNR44_000435(betB)
TVU: AB849_010990(betB)
KPUL: GXN76_06565(betB)
THL: TEH_04590(gbsA)
TEY: GLW17_04560(betB)
TOO: C7K38_02450(betB)
CBE: Cbei_4936
CBZ: Cbs_4936
CSR: Cspa_c29000(gbsA)
DAE: Dtox_4269
SAY: TPY_2986(prr)
MIT: OCO_14760
MIA: OCU_15200
MUL: MUL_2789
MHAD: B586_10995
MSHG: MSG_00554(betB) MSG_00859
MPHL: MPHLCCUG_01502(prr_1) MPHLCCUG_03023(prr_2)
MHAS: MHAS_00430(prr_1) MHAS_02260(prr_2)
MAB: MAB_3328
MSTE: MSTE_04378
MSAL: DSM43276_03119(prr_1) DSM43276_04084(prr_2)
CDI: DIP2200(gbsA)
CDP: CD241_2089(gbsA)
CDH: CDB402_2064(gbsA)
CDT: CDHC01_2090(gbsA)
CDE: CDHC02_2084(gbsA)
CDR: CDHC03_2086(gbsA)
CDA: CDHC04_2116(gbsA)
CDB: CDBH8_2176(gbsA)
CDS: CDC7B_2182(gbsA)
CDD: CDCE8392_2104(gbsA)
CDW: CDPW8_2165(gbsA)
CDV: CDVA01_2012(gbsA)
CDIP: ERS451417_02235(gbsA)
CJK: jk1187(gbsA)
CUR: cu0806
CUA: CU7111_0792(gbsA)
CKP: ckrop_0230(gbsA)
CPL: Cp3995_1830(gbsA)
CPP: CpP54B96_1811(gbsA)
CPZ: CpPAT10_1783(gbsA)
COR: Cp267_1851(gbsA)
COD: Cp106_1740(gbsA)
COS: Cp4202_1772(gbsA)
CPSE: CPTA_00163
CPSU: CPTB_01366
CPSF: CPTC_01036
CRD: CRES_1279(gbsA)
CUL: CULC22_02012(gbsA)
CUC: CULC809_01853(gbsA)
CUE: CULC0102_2003(gbsA)
CUN: Cul210932_1982(gbsA)
CUS: CulFRC11_1872(gbsA)
CUQ: Cul210931_1927(gbsA)
CUZ: Cul05146_1970(gbsA)
CUJ: CUL131002_1894c(gbsA)
CVA: CVAR_1535(betB)
CTER: A606_06070
COA: DR71_945
CCJ: UL81_00455(gbsA)
CMV: CMUST_11960(prr)
CSP: WM42_1280
CAMG: CAMM_03225
CPEG: CPELA_00810(gbsA)
CEE: CENDO_00675(gbsA)
NFA: NFA_32650
NFR: ERS450000_00650(aldHT) ERS450000_00811(betB_1)
RER: RER_44110
REY: O5Y_20710
REQ: REQ_21140
RFA: A3L23_00125(prr_1) A3L23_02740(prr_2) A3L23_04566(gbsA)
RHS: A3Q41_00621(prr_1) A3Q41_03288(prr_2) A3Q41_03705(gbsA)
RHU: A3Q40_01428(gbsA)
RRT: 4535765_02453(betB_3)
GRU: GCWB2_03945(gbsA1) GCWB2_08685(prr)
GOM: D7316_01491(prr_1) D7316_02646(gbsA_2) D7316_03928(betB_5) D7316_04624(prr_2)
SCO: SCO4828(gbsA) SCO5657(SC6A9.10c) SCO5666(SC6A9.01c)
SCT: SCAT_3718(gbsA) SCAT_4463 SCAT_4468(dhaS)
SDV: BN159_2760(prr1) BN159_2768(prr3) BN159_3585(gbsA1) BN159_7401(gbsA3)
SLV: SLIV_10295(prr1) SLIV_10340(prr2) SLIV_14230(gbsA) SLIV_32925
SGU: SGLAU_20750(gbsA) SGLAU_24335(prr1) SGLAU_24385(prr2)
SRW: TUE45_01813(gbsA_1) TUE45_05346(gbsA_2) TUE45_06153(prr_1) TUE45_06168(prr_2)
SLE: sle_20100(sle_20100) sle_20220(sle_20220) sle_28510(sle_28510)
SRN: A4G23_03499(gbsA) A4G23_04182(prr)
SALF: SMD44_05360(betB) SMD44_06273(betB) SMD44_06286(betB)
SALJ: SMD11_1920(betB) SMD11_1936(betB) SMD11_2684(betB) SMD11_5797
SLX: SLAV_02945(gbsA) SLAV_11490(prr1) SLAV_11540(prr2)
SGE: DWG14_02402(prr_1) DWG14_02410(prr_2) DWG14_03302(gbsA_1) DWG14_07329(gbsA_3)
CMI: CMM_1951
MTS: MTES_0145
MOY: CVS54_03270(prr)
AMIN: AUMI_18740
AUW: AURUGA1_00500(prr)
KRH: KRH_00840 KRH_18110(betB)
CFL: Cfla_1495
PFR: PFREUD_01860(dha1)
PFRE: RM25_0188
PBO: PACID_07740(gbsA)
MPH: MLP_20690
NDK: I601_0282(gbsA) I601_2587(prr)
PSIM: KR76_16075
MGG: MPLG2_1625(ydcW)
TFU: Tfu_0279
NDA: Ndas_5405
NAL: B005_1735(gbsA) B005_4493
STRR: EKD16_01150(gbsA)
TCU: Tcur_3397
KRA: Krad_0841
SACC: EYD13_09550(gabD1)
AMD: AMED_1201(betB) AMED_2617(betB) AMED_2620(betB) AMED_7558(betB)
AMM: AMES_1194(betB) AMES_2589(betB) AMES_2592(betB) AMES_4214(gabD) AMES_7446(betB)
AMZ: B737_1195(betB) B737_2590(betB) B737_2593(betB) B737_4214(gabD) B737_7446(betB)
AOI: AORI_1198(betB) AORI_2602(betB) AORI_2607(betB) AORI_6212(betB)
AJA: AJAP_23495 AJAP_25790(prr1) AJAP_25815(gbsA) AJAP_33605(prr2)
AMQ: AMETH_1080(betB) AMETH_4497(betB)
AMYY: YIM_15570(gabD3) YIM_20570(aldA2) YIM_31115(prr) YIM_31155(gbsA) YIM_33410(aldA3)
PSEA: WY02_25985
PSEE: FRP1_06375
PSEH: XF36_16425
PAUT: Pdca_46080(betB)
SESP: BN6_10730(prr1) BN6_44670(prr3)
AHG: AHOG_10915(prr) AHOG_21355(betB1)
ALO: CRK61868
SAQ: Sare_1625
MIL: ML5_1231
ACTN: L083_4211(msmA)
SNA: Snas_2393
RXY: Rxyl_2917
AFO: Afer_0573
AYM: YM304_04790(betB)
CYA: CYA_0364
CYB: CYB_0715
LET: O77CONTIG1_00750(prr)
GLJ: GKIL_0977(gabD2)
CTHE: Chro_1967
TRO: trd_1825
STI: Sthe_0359
FMR: Fuma_02241(betB_1)
TDE: TDE0080(gbsA)
LBF: LBF_2575
GBA: J421_2194
TVO: TVG0388541(TVG0388541)
FAI: FAD_1072
MBAR: MSBR2_3030
MAC: MA_4079(aldH6)
MHU: Mhun_1783
MBG: BN140_1817(gabD)
MEMA: MMAB1_2345(gabD)
MPI: Mpet_2565
MPL: Mpal_0566
MPD: MCP_2360
MEZ: Mtc_2099
RCI: RCIX91(gabD)
NMG: Nmag_3841
NAX: HC341_00520(betB)
SAI: Saci_1099
VDI: Vdis_1653
VMO: VMUT_2307
 » show all
1  [PMID:13192104]
The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.
J Biol Chem 209:511-23 (1954)
2  [PMID:12736784]
Livingstone JR, Maruo T, Yoshida I, Tarui Y, Hirooka K, Yamamoto Y, Tsutui N, Hirasawa E.
Purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Avena sativa.
J Plant Res 116:133-40 (2003)
3  [PMID:12604197]
Munoz-Clares RA, Gonzalez-Segura L, Mujica-Jimenez C, Contreras-Diaz L.
Ligand-induced conformational changes of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. leaves affecting the reactivity of the catalytic thiol.
Chem Biol Interact 143-144:129-37 (2003)
4  [PMID:9792097]
Johansson K, El-Ahmad M, Ramaswamy S, Hjelmqvist L, Jornvall H, Eklund H.
Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase at 2.1 A resolution.
Protein Sci 7:2106-17 (1998)
5  [PMID:12466265]
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T.
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
J Biol Chem 278:4932-42 (2003)
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database:
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature:
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database:
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database:
CAS: 9028-90-4

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