KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa00010Help
Entry
hsa00010                    Pathway                                

Name
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa00010  Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
hsa00010

Ortholog table
Module
hsa_M00001  Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate [PATH:hsa00010]
hsa_M00002  Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:hsa00010]
hsa_M00003  Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P [PATH:hsa00010]
hsa_M00307  Pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate => acetyl-CoA [PATH:hsa00010]
Disease
H00069  Glycogen storage disease
H00071  Hereditary fructose intolerance
H00072  Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency
H00114  Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
H00664  Anemia due to disorders of glycolytic enzymes
H01071  Acute alcohol sensitivity
H01096  Pyruvate kinase deficiency
H01267  Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia
H01760  Hepatic glycogen storage disease
H01762  Muscle glycogen storage disease
H01939  Glycogen storage disease type I
H01945  Glycogen storage disease type VII
H01946  Glycogen storage disease type XI
H01951  Glycogen storage disease type X
H01952  Glycogen storage disease type XII
H01953  Glycogen storage disease type XIII
H01954  Glycogen storage disease type XIV
H01997  Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency
H01998  Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-beta deficiency
H01999  Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency
H02000  Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency
Drug
D00123  Cyanamide (JP17)
D00131  Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN)
D07257  Lonidamine (INN)
D08970  Piragliatin (USAN)
Other DBs
BSID: 82926
GO: 0006096 0006094
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
3101  HK3; hexokinase 3 [KO:K00844] [EC:2.7.1.1]
3098  HK1; hexokinase 1 [KO:K00844] [EC:2.7.1.1]
3099  HK2; hexokinase 2 [KO:K00844] [EC:2.7.1.1]
80201  HKDC1; hexokinase domain containing 1 [KO:K00844] [EC:2.7.1.1]
2645  GCK; glucokinase [KO:K12407] [EC:2.7.1.2]
2821  GPI; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [KO:K01810] [EC:5.3.1.9]
5213  PFKM; phosphofructokinase, muscle [KO:K00850] [EC:2.7.1.11]
5214  PFKP; phosphofructokinase, platelet [KO:K00850] [EC:2.7.1.11]
5211  PFKL; phosphofructokinase, liver type [KO:K00850] [EC:2.7.1.11]
2203  FBP1; fructose-bisphosphatase 1 [KO:K03841] [EC:3.1.3.11]
8789  FBP2; fructose-bisphosphatase 2 [KO:K03841] [EC:3.1.3.11]
230  ALDOC; aldolase, fructose-bisphosphate C [KO:K01623] [EC:4.1.2.13]
226  ALDOA; aldolase, fructose-bisphosphate A [KO:K01623] [EC:4.1.2.13]
229  ALDOB; aldolase, fructose-bisphosphate B [KO:K01623] [EC:4.1.2.13]
7167  TPI1; triosephosphate isomerase 1 [KO:K01803] [EC:5.3.1.1]
2597  GAPDH; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [KO:K00134] [EC:1.2.1.12]
26330  GAPDHS; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic [KO:K10705] [EC:1.2.1.12]
5232  PGK2; phosphoglycerate kinase 2 [KO:K00927] [EC:2.7.2.3]
5230  PGK1; phosphoglycerate kinase 1 [KO:K00927] [EC:2.7.2.3]
5223  PGAM1; phosphoglycerate mutase 1 [KO:K01834] [EC:5.4.2.11]
5224  PGAM2; phosphoglycerate mutase 2 [KO:K01834] [EC:5.4.2.11]
441531  PGAM4; phosphoglycerate mutase family member 4 [KO:K01834] [EC:5.4.2.11]
2027  ENO3; enolase 3 [KO:K01689] [EC:4.2.1.11]
2026  ENO2; enolase 2 [KO:K01689] [EC:4.2.1.11]
2023  ENO1; enolase 1 [KO:K01689] [EC:4.2.1.11]
387712  ENO4; enolase 4 [KO:K01689] [EC:4.2.1.11]
5315  PKM; pyruvate kinase M1/2 [KO:K00873] [EC:2.7.1.40]
5313  PKLR; pyruvate kinase L/R [KO:K12406] [EC:2.7.1.40]
5161  PDHA2; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha 2 subunit [KO:K00161] [EC:1.2.4.1]
5160  PDHA1; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha 1 subunit [KO:K00161] [EC:1.2.4.1]
5162  PDHB; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit [KO:K00162] [EC:1.2.4.1]
1737  DLAT; dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase [KO:K00627] [EC:2.3.1.12]
1738  DLD; dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase [KO:K00382] [EC:1.8.1.4]
160287  LDHAL6A; lactate dehydrogenase A like 6A [KO:K00016] [EC:1.1.1.27]
92483  LDHAL6B; lactate dehydrogenase A like 6B [KO:K00016] [EC:1.1.1.27]
3939  LDHA; lactate dehydrogenase A [KO:K00016] [EC:1.1.1.27]
3945  LDHB; lactate dehydrogenase B [KO:K00016] [EC:1.1.1.27]
3948  LDHC; lactate dehydrogenase C [KO:K00016] [EC:1.1.1.27]
124  ADH1A; alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (class I), alpha polypeptide [KO:K13951] [EC:1.1.1.1]
125  ADH1B; alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide [KO:K13951] [EC:1.1.1.1]
126  ADH1C; alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide [KO:K13951] [EC:1.1.1.1]
131  ADH7; alcohol dehydrogenase 7 (class IV), mu or sigma polypeptide [KO:K13951] [EC:1.1.1.1]
127  ADH4; alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (class II), pi polypeptide [KO:K13980] [EC:1.1.1.1]
128  ADH5; alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (class III), chi polypeptide [KO:K00121] [EC:1.1.1.1 1.1.1.284]
130  ADH6; alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (class V) [KO:K13952] [EC:1.1.1.1]
10327  AKR1A1; aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1 [KO:K00002] [EC:1.1.1.2]
217  ALDH2; aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member [KO:K00128] [EC:1.2.1.3]
224  ALDH3A2; aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A2 [KO:K00128] [EC:1.2.1.3]
219  ALDH1B1; aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member B1 [KO:K00128] [EC:1.2.1.3]
501  ALDH7A1; aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 [KO:K14085] [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.8 1.2.1.31]
223  ALDH9A1; aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 family member A1 [KO:K00149] [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.47]
221  ALDH3B1; aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member B1 [KO:K00129] [EC:1.2.1.5]
222  ALDH3B2; aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member B2 [KO:K00129] [EC:1.2.1.5]
220  ALDH1A3; aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A3 [KO:K00129] [EC:1.2.1.5]
218  ALDH3A1; aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A1 [KO:K00129] [EC:1.2.1.5]
84532  ACSS1; acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 1 [KO:K01895] [EC:6.2.1.1]
55902  ACSS2; acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 2 [KO:K01895] [EC:6.2.1.1]
130589  GALM; galactose mutarotase [KO:K01785] [EC:5.1.3.3]
5236  PGM1; phosphoglucomutase 1 [KO:K01835] [EC:5.4.2.2]
55276  PGM2; phosphoglucomutase 2 [KO:K15779] [EC:5.4.2.7 5.4.2.2]
2538  G6PC; glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit [KO:K01084] [EC:3.1.3.9]
57818  G6PC2; glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 2 [KO:K01084] [EC:3.1.3.9]
92579  G6PC3; glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 3 [KO:K01084] [EC:3.1.3.9]
83440  ADPGK; ADP dependent glucokinase [KO:K08074] [EC:2.7.1.147]
669  BPGM; bisphosphoglycerate mutase [KO:K01837] [EC:5.4.2.11 5.4.2.4]
9562  MINPP1; multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1 [KO:K03103] [EC:3.1.3.80 3.1.3.62]
5105  PCK1; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 [KO:K01596] [EC:4.1.1.32]
5106  PCK2; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, mitochondrial [KO:K01596] [EC:4.1.1.32]
Compound
C00022  Pyruvate
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00031  D-Glucose
C00033  Acetate
C00036  Oxaloacetate
C00068  Thiamin diphosphate
C00074  Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00103  D-Glucose 1-phosphate
C00111  Glycerone phosphate
C00118  D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00186  (S)-Lactate
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00221  beta-D-Glucose
C00236  3-Phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate
C00267  alpha-D-Glucose
C00469  Ethanol
C00631  2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01159  2,3-Bisphospho-D-glycerate
C01172  beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01451  Salicin
C05125  2-(alpha-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate
C05345  beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C06186  Arbutin
C06187  Arbutin 6-phosphate
C06188  Salicin 6-phosphate
C15972  Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine
C15973  Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine
C16255  [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)
KO pathway
ko00010   

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