KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04062Help
Entry
hsa04062                    Pathway                                

Name
Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival.
The chemokine signal is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells. After receptor activation, the alpha- and beta-gamma-subunits of G protein dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. Various members of small GTPases are involved in this process. Induction of nitric oxide and production of reactive oxygen species are as well regulated by chemokine signal via calcium mobilization and diacylglycerol production.
Class
Organismal Systems; Immune system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa04062  Chemokine signaling pathway
hsa04062

Ortholog table
Network
N00152  CXCR-GNB/G-ERK signaling pathway
N00153  CXCR-GNB/G-PI3K-JNK signaling pathway
N00154  CXCR-GNB/G-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway
Disease
H00540  Osteoporosis, lymphedema, anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (OLEDAID)
H00645  Incontinentia pigmenti
H00882  Cocoon syndrome
H00931  Growth hormone insensitivity with immunodeficiency
H01109  Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC)
Drug
D06297  Vicriviroc maleate (USAN)
D06557  Aplaviroc hydrochloride (USAN)
D06670  Maraviroc (JAN/INN)
D08971  Plerixafor (JAN/USAN/INN)
D08984  Reparixin (USAN/INN)
D09664  Saracatinib (USAN/INN)
D09665  Saracatinib difumarate (USAN)
D09761  Mogamulizumab (USAN)
D09783  Tofacitinib citrate (JAN/USAN)
D09877  Carlumab (USAN)
D09959  Ruxolitinib (USAN/INN)
D09960  Ruxolitinib phosphate (JAN/USAN)
D09970  Tofacitinib (USAN)
D10075  Navarixin (USAN)
D10308  Baricitinib (JAN/USAN/INN)
D10332  Elubrixin (USAN)
D10378  Vercirnon (USAN/INN)
D10379  Vercirnon sodium (USAN)
D10387  Danirixin (USAN/INN)
D10420  Elubrixin tosylate (USAN)
D10618  Defactinib (USAN/INN)
D10972  Plozalizumab (USAN/INN)
D11046  Delgocitinib (JAN/USAN)
Other DBs
BSID: 99051
GO: 0070098
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
2919  CXCL1; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 [KO:K05505]
2920  CXCL2; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 [KO:K05505]
2921  CXCL3; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 3 [KO:K05505]
6374  CXCL5; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 [KO:K05506]
6372  CXCL6; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 [KO:K05506]
5473  PPBP; pro-platelet basic protein [KO:K10029]
3576  CXCL8; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 [KO:K10030]
4283  CXCL9; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 [KO:K05416]
3627  CXCL10; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 [KO:K12671]
6373  CXCL11; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 11 [KO:K12672]
6387  CXCL12; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 [KO:K10031]
10563  CXCL13; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 [KO:K10032]
58191  CXCL16; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 [KO:K10035]
5196  PF4; platelet factor 4 [KO:K05407]
5197  PF4V1; platelet factor 4 variant 1 [KO:K05407]
9547  CXCL14; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 [KO:K10033]
6375  XCL1; X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 [KO:K05507]
6846  XCL2; X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 [KO:K22675]
6376  CX3CL1; C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1 [KO:K05508]
6346  CCL1; C-C motif chemokine ligand 1 [KO:K05514]
6347  CCL2; C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 [KO:K14624]
6348  CCL3; C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 [KO:K05408]
6349  CCL3L1; C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 1 [KO:K05408]
414062  CCL3L3; C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 like 3 [KO:K05408]
6351  CCL4; C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 [KO:K12964]
9560  CCL4L2; C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 2 [KO:K12964]
388372  CCL4L1; C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 like 1 [KO:K12964]
6352  CCL5; C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 [KO:K12499]
6354  CCL7; C-C motif chemokine ligand 7 [KO:K05509]
6355  CCL8; C-C motif chemokine ligand 8 [KO:K16596]
6356  CCL11; C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 [KO:K16597]
6357  CCL13; C-C motif chemokine ligand 13 [KO:K16595]
6358  CCL14; C-C motif chemokine ligand 14 [KO:K21092]
6359  CCL15; C-C motif chemokine ligand 15 [KO:K05511]
6368  CCL23; C-C motif chemokine ligand 23 [KO:K05511]
6360  CCL16; C-C motif chemokine ligand 16 [KO:K21093]
6361  CCL17; C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 [KO:K21083]
6362  CCL18; C-C motif chemokine ligand 18 [KO:K21094]
6363  CCL19; C-C motif chemokine ligand 19 [KO:K05512]
6364  CCL20; C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 [KO:K14625]
6366  CCL21; C-C motif chemokine ligand 21 [KO:K16062]
6367  CCL22; C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 [KO:K21095]
6369  CCL24; C-C motif chemokine ligand 24 [KO:K21097]
6370  CCL25; C-C motif chemokine ligand 25 [KO:K13072]
10344  CCL26; C-C motif chemokine ligand 26 [KO:K21096]
10850  CCL27; C-C motif chemokine ligand 27 [KO:K16598]
56477  CCL28; C-C motif chemokine ligand 28 [KO:K05513]
3579  CXCR2; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 [KO:K05050]
3577  CXCR1; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 [KO:K04175]
2833  CXCR3; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 [KO:K04188]
7852  CXCR4; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [KO:K04189]
643  CXCR5; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 [KO:K04190]
10663  CXCR6; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 6 [KO:K04191]
2829  XCR1; X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 [KO:K04193]
1524  CX3CR1; C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1 [KO:K04192]
1237  CCR8; C-C motif chemokine receptor 8 [KO:K04183]
1235  CCR6; C-C motif chemokine receptor 6 [KO:K04181]
10803  CCR9; C-C motif chemokine receptor 9 [KO:K04184]
1233  CCR4; C-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [KO:K04179]
1236  CCR7; C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 [KO:K04182]
729230  CCR2; C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 [KO:K04177]
1234  CCR5; C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K04180]
1230  CCR1; C-C motif chemokine receptor 1 [KO:K04176]
1232  CCR3; C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 [KO:K04178]
2826  CCR10; C-C motif chemokine receptor 10 [KO:K04185]
3717  JAK2; Janus kinase 2 [KO:K04447] [EC:2.7.10.2]
3718  JAK3; Janus kinase 3 [KO:K11218] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6772  STAT1; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [KO:K11220]
6773  STAT2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 [KO:K11221]
6774  STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [KO:K04692]
6777  STAT5B; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [KO:K11224]
2770  GNAI1; G protein subunit alpha i1 [KO:K04630]
2773  GNAI3; G protein subunit alpha i3 [KO:K04630]
2771  GNAI2; G protein subunit alpha i2 [KO:K04630]
107  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
108  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
109  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
196883  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
111  ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
112  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
113  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
114  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
115  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
4067  LYN; LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase [KO:K05854] [EC:2.7.10.2]
3055  HCK; HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase [KO:K08893] [EC:2.7.10.2]
2268  FGR; FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase [KO:K08891] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6714  SRC; SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05704] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6464  SHC1; SHC adaptor protein 1 [KO:K06279]
25759  SHC2; SHC adaptor protein 2 [KO:K17447]
53358  SHC3; SHC adaptor protein 3 [KO:K17448]
399694  SHC4; SHC adaptor protein 4 [KO:K17449]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
6654  SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
673  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5590  PRKCZ; protein kinase C zeta [KO:K18952] [EC:2.7.11.13]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
2309  FOXO3; forkhead box O3 [KO:K09408]
1147  CHUK; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3551  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
4792  NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha [KO:K04734]
4793  NFKBIB; NFKB inhibitor beta [KO:K02581]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
2931  GSK3A; glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha [KO:K08822] [EC:2.7.11.26]
2932  GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
3702  ITK; IL2 inducible T cell kinase [KO:K07363] [EC:2.7.10.2]
10451  VAV3; vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 [KO:K05730]
7409  VAV1; vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K05730]
7410  VAV2; vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K05730]
5879  RAC1; Rac family small GTPase 1 [KO:K04392]
5880  RAC2; Rac family small GTPase 2 [KO:K07860]
5058  PAK1; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1 [KO:K04409] [EC:2.7.11.1]
998  CDC42; cell division cycle 42 [KO:K04393]
7454  WAS; Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome [KO:K05747]
8976  WASL; Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome like [KO:K05747]
387  RHOA; ras homolog family member A [KO:K04513]
6093  ROCK1; Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 [KO:K04514] [EC:2.7.11.1]
9475  ROCK2; Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 [KO:K17388] [EC:2.7.11.1]
2782  GNB1; G protein subunit beta 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  GNB2; G protein subunit beta 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  GNB3; G protein subunit beta 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  GNB4; G protein subunit beta 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  GNB5; G protein subunit beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  GNG2; G protein subunit gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  GNG3; G protein subunit gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  GNG4; G protein subunit gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  GNG5; G protein subunit gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  GNG7; G protein subunit gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  GNG8; G protein subunit gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  GNG10; G protein subunit gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  GNG11; G protein subunit gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  GNG12; G protein subunit gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
51764  GNG13; G protein subunit gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  GNGT1; G protein subunit gamma transducin 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  GNGT2; G protein subunit gamma transducin 2 [KO:K04549]
57580  PREX1; phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate dependent Rac exchange factor 1 [KO:K12365]
9844  ELMO1; engulfment and cell motility 1 [KO:K12366]
1794  DOCK2; dedicator of cytokinesis 2 [KO:K12367]
5747  PTK2; protein tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05725] [EC:2.7.10.2]
5829  PXN; paxillin [KO:K05760]
9564  BCAR1; BCAR1, Cas family scaffold protein [KO:K05726]
1398  CRK; CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [KO:K04438]
1399  CRKL; CRK like proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [KO:K04438]
2185  PTK2B; protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta [KO:K05871] [EC:2.7.10.2]
23236  PLCB1; phospholipase C beta 1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5330  PLCB2; phospholipase C beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5331  PLCB3; phospholipase C beta 3 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5332  PLCB4; phospholipase C beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
10235  RASGRP2; RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 [KO:K12361]
5906  RAP1A; RAP1A, member of RAS oncogene family [KO:K04353]
5908  RAP1B; RAP1B, member of RAS oncogene family [KO:K07836]
56288  PARD3; par-3 family cell polarity regulator [KO:K04237]
7074  TIAM1; T cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 [KO:K05731]
5579  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5580  PRKCD; protein kinase C delta [KO:K06068] [EC:2.7.11.13]
653361  NCF1; neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 [KO:K08011]
131890  GRK7; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7 [KO:K00909] [EC:2.7.11.14]
6011  GRK1; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 [KO:K00909] [EC:2.7.11.14]
156  GRK2; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 [KO:K00910] [EC:2.7.11.15]
157  GRK3; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 [KO:K00910] [EC:2.7.11.15]
2868  GRK4; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
2869  GRK5; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
2870  GRK6; G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 [KO:K08291] [EC:2.7.11.16]
408  ARRB1; arrestin beta 1 [KO:K04439]
409  ARRB2; arrestin beta 2 [KO:K04439]
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Wong MM, Fish EN
  Title
Chemokines: attractive mediators of the immune response.
  Journal
Semin Immunol 15:5-14 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S1044-5323(02)00123-9
Reference
  Authors
Curnock AP, Logan MK, Ward SG
  Title
Chemokine signalling: pivoting around multiple phosphoinositide 3-kinases.
  Journal
Immunology 105:125-36 (2002)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2002.01345.x
Reference
  Authors
Olson TS, Ley K
  Title
Chemokines and chemokine receptors in leukocyte trafficking.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283:R7-28 (2002)
DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00738.2001
Reference
  Authors
Busillo JM, Benovic JL
  Title
Regulation of CXCR4 signaling.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1768:952-63 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.11.002
Reference
  Authors
Mellado M, Rodriguez-Frade JM, Manes S, Martinez-A C
  Title
Chemokine signaling and functional responses: the role of receptor dimerization and TK pathway activation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Immunol 19:397-421 (2001)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.immunol.19.1.397
Reference
PMID:8576262
  Authors
Knall C, Young S, Nick JA, Buhl AM, Worthen GS, Johnson GL
  Title
Interleukin-8 regulation of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human neutrophils.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 271:2832-8 (1996)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.271.5.2832
Reference
  Authors
Patrussi L, Ulivieri C, Lucherini OM, Paccani SR, Gamberucci A, Lanfrancone L, Pelicci PG, Baldari CT
  Title
p52Shc is required for CXCR4-dependent signaling and chemotaxis in T cells.
  Journal
Blood 110:1730-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1182/blood-2007-01-068411
Reference
  Authors
Sai J, Raman D, Liu Y, Wikswo J, Richmond A
  Title
Parallel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent and Src-dependent pathways lead to CXCL8-mediated Rac2 activation and chemotaxis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 283:26538-47 (2008)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M805611200
Reference
  Authors
Hauck CR, Klingbeil CK, Schlaepfer DD
  Title
Focal adhesion kinase functions as a receptor-proximal signaling component required for directed cell migration.
  Journal
Immunol Res 21:293-303 (2000)
DOI:10.1385/IR:21:2-3:293
Reference
  Authors
Chandrasekar B, Bysani S, Mummidi S
  Title
CXCL16 signals via Gi, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, I kappa B kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B and induces cell-cell adhesion and aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:3188-96 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M311660200
Reference
  Authors
Smith L, Webb A, Ward SG
  Title
T-lymphocyte navigation and migration: beyond the PI3K paradigm.
  Journal
Biochem Soc Trans 35:193-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1042/BST0350193
Reference
  Authors
Huttenrauch F, Pollok-Kopp B, Oppermann M
  Title
G protein-coupled receptor kinases promote phosphorylation and beta-arrestin-mediated internalization of CCR5 homo- and hetero-oligomers.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:37503-15 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M500535200
Reference
  Authors
Thelen M, Stein JV
  Title
How chemokines invite leukocytes to dance.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 9:953-9 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/ni.f.207
Reference
  Authors
Ward SG, Marelli-Berg FM
  Title
Mechanisms of chemokine and antigen-dependent T-lymphocyte navigation.
  Journal
Biochem J 418:13-27 (2009)
DOI:10.1042/BJ20081969
Reference
  Authors
Schwartzberg PL, Finkelstein LD, Readinger JA
  Title
TEC-family kinases: regulators of T-helper-cell differentiation.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 5:284-95 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nri1591
Reference
  Authors
Berg LJ, Finkelstein LD, Lucas JA, Schwartzberg PL.
  Title
Tec family kinases in T lymphocyte development and function.
  Journal
Annu Rev Immunol 23:549-600 (2005)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.immunol.22.012703.104743
Reference
  Authors
Ticchioni M, Essafi M, Jeandel PY, Davi F, Cassuto JP, Deckert M, Bernard A
  Title
Homeostatic chemokines increase survival of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through inactivation of transcription factor FOXO3a.
  Journal
Oncogene 26:7081-91 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210519
Reference
PMID:9765254
  Authors
Korchak HM, Rossi MW, Kilpatrick LE
  Title
Selective role for beta-protein kinase C in signaling for O-2 generation but not degranulation or adherence in differentiated HL60 cells.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:27292-9 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.42.27292
Reference
  Authors
Johnson Z, Power CA, Weiss C, Rintelen F, Ji H, Ruckle T, Camps M, Wells TN, Schwarz MK, Proudfoot AE, Rommel C
  Title
Chemokine inhibition--why, when, where, which and how?
  Journal
Biochem Soc Trans 32:366-77 (2004)
DOI:10.1042/bst0320366
Reference
  Authors
Zhelev DV, Alteraifi A
  Title
Signaling in the motility responses of the human neutrophil.
  Journal
Ann Biomed Eng 30:356-70 (2002)
DOI:10.1114/1.1477446
Reference
  Authors
Bach TL, Chen QM, Kerr WT, Wang Y, Lian L, Choi JK, Wu D, Kazanietz MG, Koretzky GA, Zigmond S, Abrams CS
  Title
Phospholipase cbeta is critical for T cell chemotaxis.
  Journal
J Immunol 179:2223-7 (2007)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.179.4.2223
Reference
  Authors
Hornstein I, Alcover A, Katzav S
  Title
Vav proteins, masters of the world of cytoskeleton organization.
  Journal
Cell Signal 16:1-11 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/S0898-6568(03)00110-4
KO pathway
ko04062   

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