Pathway Maps

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KEGG PATHWAY is a collection of manually drawn pathway maps representing our knowledge on the molecular interaction and reaction networks for: and also on the structure relationships (KEGG drug structure maps) in:

Pathway Mapping

KEGG PATHWAY mapping is the process to map molecular datasets, especially large-scale datasets in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, to the KEGG pathway maps for biological interpretaion of higher-level systemic functions.

1. Metabolism

1.0 Global and overview maps
Metabolic pathways
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
Carbon metabolism
2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism
Fatty acid metabolism
Biosynthesis of amino acids
Degradation of aromatic compounds
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KEGG modules
KEGG reaction modules
1.1 Carbohydrate metabolism
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
Pentose phosphate pathway
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
Fructose and mannose metabolism
Galactose metabolism
Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
Starch and sucrose metabolism
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
Pyruvate metabolism
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
Propanoate metabolism
Butanoate metabolism
C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
Inositol phosphate metabolism
Compounds with biological roles
1.2 Energy metabolism
Oxidative phosphorylation
Photosynthesis - antenna proteins
Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
Methane metabolism
Nitrogen metabolism
Sulfur metabolism

Photosynthesis proteins
1.3 Lipid metabolism
Fatty acid biosynthesis
Fatty acid elongation
Fatty acid degradation
Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
Cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis
Steroid biosynthesis
Primary bile acid biosynthesis
Secondary bile acid biosynthesis
Steroid hormone biosynthesis
Glycerolipid metabolism
Glycerophospholipid metabolism
Ether lipid metabolism
Sphingolipid metabolism
Arachidonic acid metabolism
Linoleic acid metabolism
alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism
Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
Lipid biosynthesis proteins
1.4 Nucleotide metabolism
Purine metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
1.5 Amino acid metabolism
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Lysine biosynthesis
Lysine degradation
Arginine biosynthesis
Arginine and proline metabolism
Histidine metabolism
Tyrosine metabolism
Phenylalanine metabolism
Tryptophan metabolism
Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
Amino acid related enzymes
1.6 Metabolism of other amino acids
beta-Alanine metabolism
Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
Selenocompound metabolism
Cyanoamino acid metabolism
D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism
D-Alanine metabolism
Glutathione metabolism
1.7 Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism
N-Glycan biosynthesis
Various types of N-glycan biosynthesis
Mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis
Mannose type O-glycan biosynthesis
Other types of O-glycan biosynthesis
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - CS/DS
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - HS/Hep
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - KS
Glycosaminoglycan degradation
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - lacto and neolacto series
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - globo and isoglobo series
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series
Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
Other glycan degradation

Composite structure map
Monosaccharide codes

LPS biosynthesis proteins

HS/Hep binding proteins
Glycan binding proteins
1.8 Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins
Thiamine metabolism
Riboflavin metabolism
Vitamin B6 metabolism
Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
Biotin metabolism
Lipoic acid metabolism
Folate biosynthesis
One carbon pool by folate
Retinol metabolism
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis
1.9 Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Monoterpenoid biosynthesis
Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis
Diterpenoid biosynthesis
Carotenoid biosynthesis
Brassinosteroid biosynthesis
Insect hormone biosynthesis
Zeatin biosynthesis
Limonene and pinene degradation
Geraniol degradation
Type I polyketide structures
Biosynthesis of 12-, 14- and 16-membered macrolides
Biosynthesis of ansamycins
Biosynthesis of enediyne antibiotics
Biosynthesis of type II polyketide backbone
Biosynthesis of type II polyketide products
Tetracycline biosynthesis
Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
Nonribosomal peptide structures
Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides
Biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics
Polyketide biosynthesis proteins
1.10 Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
Stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis
Flavonoid biosynthesis
Flavone and flavonol biosynthesis
Anthocyanin biosynthesis
Isoflavonoid biosynthesis
Indole alkaloid biosynthesis
Indole diterpene alkaloid biosynthesis
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
Tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis
Acridone alkaloid biosynthesis
Caffeine metabolism
Betalain biosynthesis
Glucosinolate biosynthesis
Benzoxazinoid biosynthesis
Penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis
Carbapenem biosynthesis
Monobactam biosynthesis
Clavulanic acid biosynthesis
Streptomycin biosynthesis
Neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin biosynthesis
Acarbose and validamycin biosynthesis
Puromycin biosynthesis
Novobiocin biosynthesis
Staurosporine biosynthesis
Phenazine biosynthesis
Aflatoxin biosynthesis
Phytochemical compounds
1.11 Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism
Benzoate degradation
Aminobenzoate degradation
Fluorobenzoate degradation
Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation
Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation
Toluene degradation
Xylene degradation
Nitrotoluene degradation
Ethylbenzene degradation
Styrene degradation
Atrazine degradation
Caprolactam degradation
DDT degradation
Bisphenol degradation
Dioxin degradation
Naphthalene degradation
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation
Furfural degradation
Steroid degradation
Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
Drug metabolism - other enzymes
Endocrine disrupting compounds

Cytochrome P450
1.12 Chemical structure transformation maps
Overview of biosynthetic pathways
Biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites
Biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids
Biosynthesis of terpenoids and steroids
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from shikimate pathway
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine and nicotinic acid
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from histidine and purine
Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from terpenoid and polyketide
Biosynthesis of plant hormones

2. Genetic Information Processing

2.1 Transcription
RNA polymerase
Basal transcription factors
Transcription factors
Transcription machinery
2.2 Translation
Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis
RNA transport
mRNA surveillance pathway
Ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes
Ribosomal proteins
Ribosome biogenesis
Transfer RNA biogenesis
Translation factors
2.3 Folding, sorting and degradation
Protein export
Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
SNARE interactions in vesicular transport
Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
Sulfur relay system
RNA degradation
Chaperones and folding catalysts
Ubiquitin system
2.4 Replication and repair
DNA replication
Base excision repair
Nucleotide excision repair
Mismatch repair
Homologous recombination
Non-homologous end-joining
Fanconi anemia pathway
DNA replication proteins
DNA repair and recombination proteins

3. Environmental Information Processing

3.1 Membrane transport
ABC transporters
Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
Bacterial secretion system
Secretion system
3.2 Signal transduction
Two-component system
Ras signaling pathway
Rap1 signaling pathway
MAPK signaling pathway
MAPK signaling pathway - fly
MAPK signaling pathway - plant
MAPK signaling pathway - yeast
ErbB signaling pathway
Wnt signaling pathway
Notch signaling pathway
Hedgehog signaling pathway
Hedgehog signaling pathway - fly
TGF-beta signaling pathway
Hippo signaling pathway
Hippo signaling pathway - fly
Hippo signaling pathway - multiple species
VEGF signaling pathway
Apelin signaling pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway
NF-kappa B signaling pathway
TNF signaling pathway
HIF-1 signaling pathway
FoxO signaling pathway
Calcium signaling pathway
Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
Phospholipase D signaling pathway
Sphingolipid signaling pathway
cAMP signaling pathway
cGMP-PKG signaling pathway
PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
AMPK signaling pathway
mTOR signaling pathway
Plant hormone signal transduction
Two-component system

Signaling modules
3.3 Signaling molecules and interaction
Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
ECM-receptor interaction
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
G protein-coupled receptors
Enzyme-linked receptors
Cytokine receptors / Cytokines
Nuclear receptors
Ion channels
GTP-binding proteins
CAMs / CAM ligands
Cellular antigens

4. Cellular Processes

4.1 Transport and catabolism
Autophagy - animal
Autophagy - yeast
Autophagy - other
Mitophagy - animal
Mitophagy - yeast
4.2 Cell growth and death
Cell cycle
Cell cycle - yeast
Cell cycle - Caulobacter
Meiosis - yeast
Oocyte meiosis
Apoptosis - fly
Apoptosis - multiple species
Necroptosis New!
p53 signaling pathway
Cellular senescence New!
4.3 Cellular community - eukaryotes
Focal adhesion
Adherens junction
Tight junction
Gap junction
Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells
4.4 Cellular community - prokaryotes
Quorum sensing
Biofilm formation - Vibrio cholerae
Biofilm formation - Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Biofilm formation - Escherichia coli
4.5 Cell motility
Bacterial chemotaxis
Flagellar assembly
Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
Bacterial motility proteins

Cytoskeleton proteins

5. Organismal Systems

5.1 Immune system
Hematopoietic cell lineage
Complement and coagulation cascades
Platelet activation
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Toll and Imd signaling pathway
NOD-like receptor signaling pathway
RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway
Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
Antigen processing and presentation
T cell receptor signaling pathway
Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation
Th17 cell differentiation
IL-17 signaling pathway
B cell receptor signaling pathway
Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
Leukocyte transendothelial migration
Intestinal immune network for IgA production
Chemokine signaling pathway
5.2 Endocrine system
Insulin secretion
Insulin signaling pathway
Glucagon signaling pathway
Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes
Adipocytokine signaling pathway
PPAR signaling pathway
GnRH signaling pathway
Ovarian steroidogenesis
Estrogen signaling pathway
Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation
Prolactin signaling pathway
Oxytocin signaling pathway
Thyroid hormone synthesis
Thyroid hormone signaling pathway
Renin secretion
Renin-angiotensin system
Aldosterone synthesis and secretion
5.3 Circulatory system
Cardiac muscle contraction
Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes
Vascular smooth muscle contraction
5.4 Digestive system
Salivary secretion
Gastric acid secretion
Pancreatic secretion
Bile secretion
Carbohydrate digestion and absorption
Protein digestion and absorption
Fat digestion and absorption
Vitamin digestion and absorption
Mineral absorption
5.5 Excretory system
Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption
Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption
Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption
Proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation
Collecting duct acid secretion
5.6 Nervous system
Glutamatergic synapse
GABAergic synapse
Cholinergic synapse
Dopaminergic synapse
Serotonergic synapse
Long-term potentiation
Long-term depression
Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling
Synaptic vesicle cycle
Neurotrophin signaling pathway
5.7 Sensory system
Phototransduction - fly
Olfactory transduction
Taste transduction
Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels
5.8 Development
Dorso-ventral axis formation
Axon guidance
Osteoclast differentiation
5.9 Aging
Longevity regulating pathway
Longevity regulating pathway - worm
Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species
5.10 Environmental adaptation
Circadian rhythm
Circadian entrainment
Circadian rhythm - fly
Circadian rhythm - plant
Plant-pathogen interaction

6. Human Diseases

6.1 Cancers: Overview
Pathways in cancer
Central carbon metabolism in cancer
Choline metabolism in cancer
Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
MicroRNAs in cancer
Proteoglycans in cancer
Chemical carcinogenesis
Viral carcinogenesis
KEGG Cancer

Human diseases
6.2 Cancers: Specific types
Colorectal cancer
Pancreatic cancer
Thyroid cancer
Acute myeloid leukemia
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Basal cell carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Bladder cancer
Prostate cancer
Endometrial cancer
Breast cancer
Small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer
6.3 Immune diseases
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Rheumatoid arthritis
Autoimmune thyroid disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Allograft rejection
Graft-versus-host disease
Primary immunodeficiency
6.4 Neurodegenerative diseases
Alzheimer's disease
Parkinson's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Huntington's disease
Prion diseases
6.5 Substance dependence
Cocaine addiction
Amphetamine addiction
Morphine addiction
Nicotine addiction
6.6 Cardiovascular diseases
Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
Viral myocarditis
6.7 Endocrine and metabolic diseases
Type II diabetes mellitus
Type I diabetes mellitus
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Insulin resistance
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications
6.8 Infectious diseases: Bacterial
Vibrio cholerae infection
Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection
Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection
Salmonella infection
Staphylococcus aureus infection
Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells
KEGG Pathogen

Infectious diseases

Bacterial toxins
6.9 Infectious diseases: Viral
HTLV-I infection
Influenza A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Herpes simplex infection
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection New!
Epstein-Barr virus infection
6.10 Infectious diseases: Parasitic
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)
African trypanosomiasis
6.11 Drug resistance: Antimicrobial
beta-Lactam resistance
Vancomycin resistance
Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
6.12 Drug resistance: Antineoplastic
EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance
Platinum drug resistance
Antifolate resistance
Endocrine resistance

7. Drug Development

7.1 Chronology: Antiinfectives
Cephalosporins - parenteral agents
Cephalosporins - oral agents
Macrolides and ketolides
Antifungal agents
Antiviral agents
Anti-HIV agents

ATC classification (WHO)
USP drug classification (USA)
Therapeutic category of drugs (Japan)

7.2 Chronology: Antineoplastics
Antineoplastics - alkylating agents
Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents
Antineoplastics - agents from natural products
Antineoplastics - hormones
Antineoplastics - protein kinases inhibitors
7.3 Chronology: Nervous system agents
Local analgesics
Opioid analgesics
Antipsychotics - phenothiazines
Antipsychotics - butyrophenones
Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia
Antiparkinsonian agents
7.4 Chronology: Other drugs
Sulfonamide derivatives - overview
Sulfonamide derivatives - sulfa drugs
Sulfonamide derivatives - diuretics
Sulfonamide derivatives - hypoglycemic agents
Antiarrhythmic drugs
Antiulcer drugs
Immunosuppressive agents
Osteoporosis drugs
Antithrombosis agents
Antirheumatics - DMARDs and biological agents
Antidyslipidemic agents
Antiglaucoma agents
7.5 Target-based classification: G protein-coupled receptors
Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs
alpha-Adrenergic receptor agonists/antagonists
beta-Adrenergic receptor agonists/antagonists
Dopamine receptor agonists/antagonists
Histamine H1 receptor antagonists
Histamine H2/H3 receptor agonists/antagonists
Serotonin receptor agonists/antagonists
Eicosanoid receptor agonists/antagonists
Opioid receptor agonists/antagonists
Angiotensin receptor and endothelin receptor antagonists
Target-based classification

G protein-coupled receptors
7.6 Target-based classification: Nuclear receptors
Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor agonists/antagonists
Progesterone, androgen and estrogen receptor agonists/antagonists
Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists/antagonists
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists
Nuclear receptors
7.7 Target-based classification: Ion channels
Nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists
GABA-A receptor agonists/antagonists
Calcium channel blocking drugs
Sodium channel blocking drugs
Potassium channel blocking and opening drugs
N-Metyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonists
Ion channels
7.8 Target-based classification: Transporters
Ion transporter inhibitors
Neurotransmitter transporter inhibitors
7.9 Target-based classification: Enzymes
Catecholamine transferase inhibitors
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors
HIV protease inhibitors
7.10 Structure-based classification
7.11 Skeleton-based classification
Benzoic acid family
1,2-Diphenyl substitution family
Naphthalene family
Benzodiazepine family

Last updated: June 20, 2017
KEGG GenomeNet Kanehisa Laboratories