KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04218
hsa04218                    Pathway                                
Cellular senescence - Homo sapiens (human)
Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cellular arrest and can be triggered by a number of factors, such as telomere shortening, oncogene activation, irradiation, DNA damage and oxidative stress. It is characterized by enlarged flattened morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-b-gal) activity, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases, as part of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Cellular senescence is functionally associated with many biological processes including aging, tumor suppression, placental biology, embryonic development, and wound healing.
Cellular Processes; Cell growth and death
Pathway map
hsa04218  Cellular senescence

D00107  Tacrolimus (USP/INN)
D00184  Cyclosporine (USP)
D01583  Pirfenidone (JAN/USAN/INN)
D05480  Pimecrolimus (JAN/USAN/INN)
D06160  Tiplasinin (USAN)
D08556  Tacrolimus (INN)
D08656  Aleplasinin (USAN/INN)
D09033  Voclosporin (JAN/USAN/INN)
D10983  Ruclosporin (USAN/INN)
D11148  Berzosertib (USAN/INN)
D11787  Ceralasertib (USAN/INN)
D12181  Edasalonexent (USAN/INN)
D12237  Zunsemetinib (USAN)
D12321  Camonsertib (USAN)
Other DBs
GO: 0090398
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
7040  TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta 1 [KO:K13375]
7042  TGFB2; transforming growth factor beta 2 [KO:K13376]
7043  TGFB3; transforming growth factor beta 3 [KO:K13377]
7046  TGFBR1; transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 [KO:K04674] [EC:]
7048  TGFBR2; transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 [KO:K04388] [EC:]
4087  SMAD2; SMAD family member 2 [KO:K04500]
4088  SMAD3; SMAD family member 3 [KO:K23605]
1030  CDKN2B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B [KO:K04685]
1019  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:]
1021  CDK6; cyclin dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
894  CCND2; cyclin D2 [KO:K10151]
896  CCND3; cyclin D3 [KO:K10152]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
5933  RBL1; RB transcriptional corepressor like 1 [KO:K04681]
5934  RBL2; RB transcriptional corepressor like 2 [KO:K16332]
1869  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
1874  E2F4; E2F transcription factor 4 [KO:K04682]
1875  E2F5; E2F transcription factor 5 [KO:K04682]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
2308  FOXO1; forkhead box O1 [KO:K07201]
2309  FOXO3; forkhead box O3 [KO:K09408]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
1017  CDK2; cyclin dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:]
898  CCNE1; cyclin E1 [KO:K06626]
9134  CCNE2; cyclin E2 [KO:K06626]
3105  HLA-A; major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [KO:K06751]
3106  HLA-B; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B [KO:K06751]
3107  HLA-C; major histocompatibility complex, class I, C [KO:K06751]
3134  HLA-F; major histocompatibility complex, class I, F [KO:K06751]
3135  HLA-G; major histocompatibility complex, class I, G [KO:K06751]
3133  HLA-E; major histocompatibility complex, class I, E [KO:K06751]
3805  KIR2DL4; killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 4 [KO:K24231]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
6237  RRAS; RAS related [KO:K07829]
22800  RRAS2; RAS related 2 [KO:K07830]
22808  MRAS; muscle RAS oncogene homolog [KO:K07831]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
7248  TSC1; TSC complex subunit 1 [KO:K07206]
7249  TSC2; TSC complex subunit 2 [KO:K07207]
6009  RHEB; Ras homolog, mTORC1 binding [KO:K07208]
2475  MTOR; mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase [KO:K07203] [EC:]
5728  PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:]
23411  SIRT1; sirtuin 1 [KO:K11411] [EC:]
890  CCNA2; cyclin A2 [KO:K06627]
8900  CCNA1; cyclin A1 [KO:K06627]
4605  MYBL2; MYB proto-oncogene like 2 [KO:K21769]
286826  LIN9; lin-9 DREAM MuvB core complex component [KO:K21773]
55957  LIN37; lin-37 DREAM MuvB core complex component [KO:K21774]
91750  LIN52; lin-52 DREAM MuvB core complex component [KO:K21775]
132660  LIN54; lin-54 DREAM MuvB core complex component [KO:K21776]
5928  RBBP4; RB binding protein 4, chromatin remodeling factor [KO:K10752]
2305  FOXM1; forkhead box M1 [KO:K09406]
4609  MYC; MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [KO:K04377]
1029  CDKN2A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [KO:K06621]
4193  MDM2; MDM2 proto-oncogene [KO:K06643] [EC:]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
83593  RASSF5; Ras association domain family member 5 [KO:K08015]
8945  BTRC; beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase [KO:K03362]
23291  FBXW11; F-box and WD repeat domain containing 11 [KO:K03362]
10114  HIPK3; homeodomain interacting protein kinase 3 [KO:K08826] [EC:]
204851  HIPK1; homeodomain interacting protein kinase 1 [KO:K08826] [EC:]
28996  HIPK2; homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 [KO:K08826] [EC:]
147746  HIPK4; homeodomain interacting protein kinase 4 [KO:K08826] [EC:]
5499  PPP1CA; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K06269] [EC:]
5500  PPP1CB; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K06269] [EC:]
5501  PPP1CC; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K06269] [EC:]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
2113  ETS1; ETS proto-oncogene 1, transcription factor [KO:K02678]
5606  MAP2K3; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 [KO:K04432] [EC:]
5608  MAP2K6; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 [KO:K04433] [EC:]
5600  MAPK11; mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
6300  MAPK12; mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
5603  MAPK13; mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
1432  MAPK14; mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
1647  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [KO:K04402]
4616  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta [KO:K04402]
10912  GADD45G; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma [KO:K04402]
983  CDK1; cyclin dependent kinase 1 [KO:K02087] [EC:]
891  CCNB1; cyclin B1 [KO:K05868]
9133  CCNB2; cyclin B2 [KO:K21770]
85417  CCNB3; cyclin B3 [KO:K21771]
4361  MRE11; MRE11 homolog, double strand break repair nuclease [KO:K10865]
10111  RAD50; RAD50 double strand break repair protein [KO:K10866] [EC:3.6.-.-]
4683  NBN; nibrin [KO:K10867]
472  ATM; ATM serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04728] [EC:]
11200  CHEK2; checkpoint kinase 2 [KO:K06641] [EC:]
5883  RAD9A; RAD9 checkpoint clamp component A [KO:K10994] [EC:]
144715  RAD9B; RAD9 checkpoint clamp component B [KO:K10995]
5810  RAD1; RAD1 checkpoint DNA exonuclease [KO:K02830] [EC:]
3364  HUS1; HUS1 checkpoint clamp component [KO:K10903]
545  ATR; ATR serine/threonine kinase [KO:K06640] [EC:]
1111  CHEK1; checkpoint kinase 1 [KO:K02216] [EC:]
993  CDC25A; cell division cycle 25A [KO:K06645] [EC:]
8878  SQSTM1; sequestosome 1 [KO:K14381]
2626  GATA4; GATA binding protein 4 [KO:K09183]
10758  TRAF3IP2; TRAF3 interacting protein 2 [KO:K21124]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
3552  IL1A; interleukin 1 alpha [KO:K04383]
3569  IL6; interleukin 6 [KO:K05405]
3576  CXCL8; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 [KO:K10030]
3486  IGFBP3; insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 [KO:K10138]
5054  SERPINE1; serpin family E member 1 [KO:K03982]
1978  EIF4EBP1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 [KO:K07205]
9261  MAPKAPK2; MAPK activated protein kinase 2 [KO:K04443] [EC:]
677  ZFP36L1; ZFP36 ring finger protein like 1 [KO:K18753]
678  ZFP36L2; ZFP36 ring finger protein like 2 [KO:K18753]
776  CACNA1D; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D [KO:K04851]
59341  TRPV4; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 [KO:K04973]
54822  TRPM7; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 [KO:K04982] [EC:]
823  CAPN1; calpain 1 [KO:K01367] [EC:]
824  CAPN2; calpain 2 [KO:K03853] [EC:]
810  CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
808  CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
801  CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
163688  CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
91860  CALML4; calmodulin like 4 [KO:K02183]
5530  PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5532  PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5533  PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5534  PPP3R1; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K06268]
5535  PPP3R2; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K06268]
4772  NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 [KO:K04446]
4773  NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 [KO:K17334]
3708  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
291  SLC25A4; solute carrier family 25 member 4 [KO:K05863]
292  SLC25A5; solute carrier family 25 member 5 [KO:K05863]
293  SLC25A6; solute carrier family 25 member 6 [KO:K05863]
83447  SLC25A31; solute carrier family 25 member 31 [KO:K05863]
5481  PPID; peptidylprolyl isomerase D [KO:K05864] [EC:]
7416  VDAC1; voltage dependent anion channel 1 [KO:K05862]
7417  VDAC2; voltage dependent anion channel 2 [KO:K15040]
7419  VDAC3; voltage dependent anion channel 3 [KO:K15041]
90550  MCU; mitochondrial calcium uniporter [KO:K20858]
C00027  Hydrogen peroxide
C00076  Calcium cation
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C07909  Sirolimus
C16844  Hydroxyl radical
Munoz-Espin D, Serrano M
Cellular senescence: from physiology to pathology.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 15:482-96 (2014)
Childs BG, Durik M, Baker DJ, van Deursen JM
Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy.
Nat Med 21:1424-35 (2015)
Sharpless NE, Sherr CJ
Forging a signature of in vivo senescence.
Nat Rev Cancer 15:397-408 (2015)
Fridlyanskaya I, Alekseenko L, Nikolsky N
Senescence as a general cellular response to stress: A mini-review.
Exp Gerontol 72:124-8 (2015)
Lujambio A
To clear, or not to clear (senescent cells)? That is the question.
Bioessays 38 Suppl 1:S56-64 (2016)
Di Mitri D, Alimonti A
Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Cellular Senescence in Cancer.
Trends Cell Biol 26:215-26 (2016)
Francica P, Aebersold DM, Medova M
Senescence as biologic endpoint following pharmacological targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer.
Biochem Pharmacol 126:1-12 (2017)
Bartling B
Cellular senescence in normal and premature lung aging.
Z Gerontol Geriatr 46:613-22 (2013)
Munoz-Espin D, Canamero M, Maraver A, Gomez-Lopez G, Contreras J, Murillo-Cuesta S, Rodriguez-Baeza A, Varela-Nieto I, Ruberte J, Collado M, Serrano M
Programmed cell senescence during mammalian embryonic development.
Cell 155:1104-18 (2013)
Herranz N, Gallage S, Gil J
TORn about SASP regulation.
Cell Cycle 14:3771-2 (2015)
Martin N, Bernard D
Calcium signaling and cellular senescence.
Cell Calcium S0143-4160(17)30049-0 (2017)
Farfariello V, Iamshanova O, Germain E, Fliniaux I, Prevarskaya N
Calcium homeostasis in cancer: A focus on senescence.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1853:1974-9 (2015)
McCarthy DA, Clark RR, Bartling TR, Trebak M, Melendez JA
Redox control of the senescence regulator interleukin-1alpha and the secretory phenotype.
J Biol Chem 288:32149-59 (2013)
Donninger H, Schmidt ML, Mezzanotte J, Barnoud T, Clark GJ
Ras signaling through RASSF proteins.
Semin Cell Dev Biol 58:86-95 (2016)
Barnoud T, Schmidt ML, Donninger H, Clark GJ
The role of the NORE1A tumor suppressor in Oncogene-Induced Senescence.
Cancer Lett 400:30-36 (2017)
Kang C, Xu Q, Martin TD, Li MZ, Demaria M, Aron L, Lu T, Yankner BA, Campisi J, Elledge SJ
The DNA damage response induces inflammation and senescence by inhibiting autophagy of GATA4.
Science 349:aaa5612 (2015)
Cao X, Li M
A New Pathway for Senescence Regulation.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 13:333-5 (2015)
Gire V, Dulic V
Senescence from G2 arrest, revisited.
Cell Cycle 14:297-304 (2015)
Mowla SN, Lam EW, Jat PS
Cellular senescence and aging: the role of B-MYB.
Aging Cell 13:773-9 (2014)
Yao H, Chung S, Hwang JW, Rajendrasozhan S, Sundar IK, Dean DA, McBurney MW, Guarente L, Gu W, Ronty M, Kinnula VL, Rahman I
SIRT1 protects against emphysema via FOXO3-mediated reduction of premature senescence in mice.
J Clin Invest 122:2032-45 (2012)
Hwang JW, Yao H, Caito S, Sundar IK, Rahman I
Redox regulation of SIRT1 in inflammation and cellular senescence.
Free Radic Biol Med 61:95-110 (2013)
hsa04020  Calcium signaling pathway
hsa04068  FoxO signaling pathway
hsa04110  Cell cycle
hsa04115  p53 signaling pathway
hsa04150  mTOR signaling pathway
KO pathway

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