KEGG   PATHWAY: bta04921
bta04921                    Pathway                                

Oxytocin signaling pathway - Bos taurus (cow)
Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and peripheral effects. However, its best-known and most well-established roles are stimulation of uterine contractions during parturition and milk release during lactation. Oxytocin also influences cardiovascular regulation and various social behaviors. The actions of OT are all mediated by one type of OT receptor (OTR). This is a transmembrane receptor belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The main signaling pathway is the Gq/PLC/Ins3 pathway, but the MAPK and the RhoA/Rho kinase pathways are also activated, contributing to increased prostaglandin production and direct contractile effect on myometrial cells. In the cardiovascular system, OTR is associated with the ANP-cGMP and NO-cGMP pathways, which reduce the force and rate of contraction and increase vasodilatation.
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
Pathway map
bta04921  Oxytocin signaling pathway

Bos taurus (cow) [GN:bta]
280888  OXT; oxytocin-neurophysin 1 preproprotein [KO:K05243]
281371  OXTR; oxytocin receptor [KO:K04229]
536654  GNAQ; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
100298939  HRAS; GTPase HRas isoform 1 [KO:K02833]
100847184  GTPase HRas-like [KO:K02833]
541140  KRAS; GTPase KRas [KO:K07827]
506322  NRAS; GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
521196  RAF1; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
533199  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
510434  MAP2K2; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
327672  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
531391  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
526364  PLA2G4E; cytosolic phospholipase A2 epsilon [KO:K16342] [EC:]
505485  PLA2G4B; cytosolic phospholipase A2 beta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
522866  PLA2G4F; cytosolic phospholipase A2 zeta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
531209  PLA2G4D; cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
525072  PLA2G4A; cytosolic phospholipase A2 [KO:K16342] [EC:]
282023  PTGS2; prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor [KO:K11987] [EC:]
100295732  MAP2K5; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 [KO:K04463] [EC:]
537703  MAPK7; mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 [KO:K04464] [EC:]
280831  JUN; transcription factor AP-1 [KO:K04448]
280795  FOS; proto-oncogene c-Fos [KO:K04379]
512254  MEF2C; myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C [KO:K04454]
524530  CCND1; G1/S-specific cyclin-D1 [KO:K04503]
786886  ELK1; ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1 [KO:K04375]
100139857  RYR1; ryanodine receptor 1 [KO:K04961]
537376  RYR2; ryanodine receptor 2 isoform X3 [KO:K04962]
539899  RYR3; ryanodine receptor 3 [KO:K04963]
327677  CD38; ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 1 [KO:K01242] [EC:]
508029  TRPM2; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04977] [EC:]
281883  KCNJ2; inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K04996]
538479  KCNJ12; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 12 [KO:K05005]
101906792  KCNJ4; inward rectifier potassium channel 4 [KO:K04998]
540740  KCNJ14; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 14 [KO:K05007]
287026  PLCB1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
281985  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
515669  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
508888  PLCB2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
282001  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type [KO:K02677] [EC:]
282325  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:]
282002  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:]
521730  EEF2K; eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase [KO:K08292] [EC:]
281138  EEF2; elongation factor 2 [KO:K03234]
408015  CACNA1C; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C isoform X1 [KO:K04850]
408013  CACNA1D; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D [KO:K04851]
509779  CACNA1F; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F [KO:K04853]
100337204  CACNA1S; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S isoform X1 [KO:K04857]
327703  CACNB1; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 [KO:K04862]
327667  CACNB2; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2 [KO:K04863]
282160  CACNB3; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3 [KO:K04864]
282161  CACNB4; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4 [KO:K04865]
282608  CACNA2D1; voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 precursor [KO:K04858]
785909  CACNA2D2; voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 isoform X1 [KO:K04859]
519644  CACNA2D3; voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-3 precursor [KO:K04860]
784075  CACNA2D4; voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-4 [KO:K04861]
781184  CACNG1; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit [KO:K04866]
286800  CACNG2; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2 subunit [KO:K04867]
538496  CACNG3; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3 subunit [KO:K04868]
519331  CACNG4; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4 subunit [KO:K04869]
529382  CACNG5; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-5 subunit [KO:K04870]
521616  CACNG6; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-6 subunit [KO:K04871]
539969  CACNG7; voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-7 subunit [KO:K04872]
317697  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
281878  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
281879  ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
326597  CALM; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
520277  CALM3; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
617095  CALM1; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
520404  CALML5; calmodulin-like protein 5 [KO:K02183]
100297344  CALM2; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
617412  CALML6; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: calmodulin-like protein 6 [KO:K02183]
104973792  calcium-dependent protein kinase 10 [KO:K02183]
539277  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 [KO:K02183]
286852  PPP3CA; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K04348] [EC:]
533527  PPP3CC; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit gamma isoform [KO:K04348] [EC:]
790867  PPP3CB; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit beta isoform [KO:K04348] [EC:]
282321  PPP3R1; calcineurin subunit B type 1 [KO:K06268]
617585  PPP3R2; calcineurin subunit B type 2 [KO:K06268]
511224  NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 [KO:K04446]
530401  NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 2 isoform X1 [KO:K17332]
541127  NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 3 [KO:K17333]
788119  NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 4 [KO:K17334]
100848920  RGS2; regulator of G-protein signaling 2 [KO:K18154]
513055  RGS2; regulator of G-protein signaling 2 [KO:K18154]
539640  RCAN1; calcipressin-1 [KO:K17901]
509084  CAMKK2; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K07359] [EC:]
538954  PRKAA2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 [KO:K07198] [EC:]
540404  PRKAA1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 [KO:K07198] [EC:]
512665  PRKAB2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2 [KO:K07199]
534107  PRKAB1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1 [KO:K07199]
282324  PRKAG1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-1 [KO:K07200]
504219  PRKAG2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-2 isoform X1 [KO:K07200]
511961  PRKAG3; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-3 isoform 1 [KO:K07200]
511504  CAMK1G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G [KO:K08794] [EC:]
520498  CAMK1; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 [KO:K08794] [EC:]
526873  CAMK1D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D isoform X1 [KO:K08794] [EC:]
282162  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:]
525416  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta [KO:K04515] [EC:]
530719  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:]
532713  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta [KO:K04515] [EC:]
100337083  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV isoform X2 [KO:K05869] [EC:]
287024  NOS3; nitric oxide synthase, endothelial [KO:K13242] [EC:]
613600  GUCY1A2; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
281216  GUCY1A1; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-1 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
282433  GUCY1B1; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-1 [KO:K12319] [EC:]
112449027  guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-2-like [KO:K12319] [EC:]
281355  NPPA; natriuretic peptides A precursor [KO:K12334]
533048  NPR1; atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 1 precursor [KO:K12323] [EC:]
281357  NPR2; atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 2 precursor [KO:K12324] [EC:]
338037  MYLK; myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle [KO:K00907] [EC:]
533378  MYLK2; myosin light chain kinase 2, skeletal/cardiac muscle [KO:K00907] [EC:]
526379  MYLK3; myosin light chain kinase 3 isoform X2 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
518025  MYLK4; myosin light chain kinase family member 4 isoform X1 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
515421  MYL6B; myosin light chain 6B [KO:K12751]
281341  MYL6; myosin light polypeptide 6 [KO:K12751]
505964  MYL9; myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 [KO:K12755]
404122  ACTG1; actin, cytoplasmic 2 [KO:K05692]
280979  ACTB; actin, cytoplasmic 1 [KO:K05692]
338049  RHOA; transforming protein RhoA precursor [KO:K04513]
785911  ROCK1; rho-associated protein kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04514] [EC:]
282041  ROCK2; rho-associated protein kinase 2 [KO:K17388] [EC:]
282318  PPP1CC; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit [KO:K06269] [EC:]
516175  PPP1CA; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-alpha catalytic subunit [KO:K06269] [EC:]
538829  PPP1CB; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit [KO:K06269] [EC:]
538606  PPP1R12A; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A [KO:K06270]
107131237  PPP1R12B; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12B isoform X1 [KO:K12329]
512431  PPP1R12C; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C isoform X1 [KO:K17457]
281793  GNAS; SCG6 (secretogranin VI) isoform SCG6 precursor [KO:K04632]
281601  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:]
510708  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:]
535603  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:]
788151  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:]
505740  ADCY5; adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:]
509936  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:]
281603  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:]
535017  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 [KO:K08048] [EC:]
525482  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:]
282322  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
282323  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:]
281790  GNAI1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04630]
281791  GNAI2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04630]
539521  GNAI3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha [KO:K04630]
281792  GNAO1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha [KO:K04534]
530001  PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform [KO:K21289] [EC:]
614838  PIK3R5; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 isoform X3 [KO:K21290]
515621  PIK3R6; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 6 [KO:K21290]
535742  SRC; proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src [KO:K05704] [EC:]
526088  KCNJ3; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1 [KO:K04997]
520743  KCNJ6; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K05000]
614969  KCNJ9; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 3 [KO:K05002]
539844  KCNJ5; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4 [KO:K04999]
407217  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:]
513497  CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 [KO:K06625]
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00219  Arachidonate
C00238  Potassium cation
C00427  Prostaglandin H2
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00584  Prostaglandin E2
C00639  Prostaglandin F2alpha
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C13050  Cyclic ADP-ribose
Devost D, Wrzal P, Zingg HH
Oxytocin receptor signalling.
Prog Brain Res 170:167-76 (2008)
Viero C, Shibuya I, Kitamura N, Verkhratsky A, Fujihara H, Katoh A, Ueta Y, Zingg HH, Chvatal A, Sykova E, Dayanithi G
REVIEW: Oxytocin: Crossing the bridge between basic science and pharmacotherapy.
CNS Neurosci Ther 16:e138-56 (2010)
Gutkowska J, Jankowski M
Oxytocin revisited: its role in cardiovascular regulation.
J Neuroendocrinol 24:599-608 (2012)
Vrachnis N, Malamas FM, Sifakis S, Deligeoroglou E, Iliodromiti Z
The oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system and its antagonists as tocolytic agents.
Int J Endocrinol 2011:350546 (2011)
Tom N, Assinder SJ
Oxytocin in health and disease.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 42:202-5 (2010)
Strakova Z, Copland JA, Lolait SJ, Soloff MS
ERK2 mediates oxytocin-stimulated PGE2 synthesis.
Am J Physiol 274:E634-41 (1998)
Slater DM, Zervou S, Thornton S
Prostaglandins and prostanoid receptors in human pregnancy and parturition.
J Soc Gynecol Investig 9:118-24 (2002)
Shmygol A, Gullam J, Blanks A, Thornton S
Multiple mechanisms involved in oxytocin-induced modulation of myometrial contractility.
Acta Pharmacol Sin 27:827-32 (2006)
Tahara M, Morishige K, Sawada K, Ikebuchi Y, Kawagishi R, Tasaka K, Murata Y
RhoA/Rho-kinase cascade is involved in oxytocin-induced rat uterine contraction.
Endocrinology 143:920-9 (2002)
Slattery MM, Morrison JJ
Preterm delivery.
Lancet 360:1489-97 (2002)
Pont JN, McArdle CA, Lopez Bernal A
Oxytocin-stimulated NFAT transcriptional activation in human myometrial cells.
Mol Endocrinol 26:1743-56 (2012)
Gutkowska J, Jankowski M, Lambert C, Mukaddam-Daher S, Zingg HH, McCann SM
Oxytocin releases atrial natriuretic peptide by combining with oxytocin receptors in the heart.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:11704-9 (1997)
Antunes-Rodrigues J, de Castro M, Elias LL, Valenca MM, McCann SM
Neuroendocrine control of body fluid metabolism.
Physiol Rev 84:169-208 (2004)
Lee ES, Uhm KO, Lee YM, Kwon J, Park SH, Soo KH
Oxytocin stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells through the calcium-CaMKK-AMPK pathway.
Regul Pept 151:71-4 (2008)
Cassoni P, Sapino A, Fortunati N, Munaron L, Chini B, Bussolati G
Oxytocin inhibits the proliferation of MDA-MB231 human breast-cancer cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase A.
Busnelli M, Peverelli E, Mantovani G, Spada A, Chini B
Deciphering the specific role of G(alphai/o) isoforms: functional selective oxytocin ligands and somatostatin SST5 receptor mutants.
Biochem Soc Trans 41:166-71 (2013)
Reversi A, Rimoldi V, Brambillasca S, Chini B
Effects of cholesterol manipulation on the signaling of the human oxytocin receptor.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R861-9 (2006)
Salmina AB, Lopatina O, Ekimova MV, Mikhutkina SV, Higashida H
CD38/cyclic ADP-ribose system: a new player for oxytocin secretion and regulation of social behaviour.
J Neuroendocrinol 22:380-92 (2010)
Higashida H, Yokoyama S, Kikuchi M, Munesue T
CD38 and its role in oxytocin secretion and social behavior.
Horm Behav 61:351-8 (2012)
Lopatina O, Inzhutova A, Salmina AB, Higashida H
The roles of oxytocin and CD38 in social or parental behaviors.
Front Neurosci 6:182 (2012)
Guse AH
Second messenger function and the structure-activity relationship of cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR).
FEBS J 272:4590-7 (2005)
bta00590  Arachidonic acid metabolism
bta04010  MAPK signaling pathway
bta04020  Calcium signaling pathway
bta04110  Cell cycle
KO pathway

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