KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00030Help
Entry
ko00030                     Pathway                                

Name
Pentose phosphate pathway
Description
The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P by oxidative decarboxylation, and NADPH is generated [MD:M00006]. The other is reversible non-oxidative phase in which phosphorylated sugars are interconverted to generate xylulose-5P, ribulose-5P, and ribose-5P [MD:M00007]. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) formed from ribose-5P [MD:M00005] is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows the Entner-Doudoroff pathway where 6-P-gluconate is dehydrated and then cleaved into pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3P [MD:M00008].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko00030  Pentose phosphate pathway
ko00030

Ortholog table
Module
M00004  Pentose phosphate pathway (Pentose phosphate cycle) [PATH:ko00030]
M00005  PRPP biosynthesis, ribose 5P => PRPP [PATH:ko00030]
M00006  Pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phase, glucose 6P => ribulose 5P [PATH:ko00030]
M00007  Pentose phosphate pathway, non-oxidative phase, fructose 6P => ribose 5P [PATH:ko00030]
M00008  Entner-Doudoroff pathway, glucose-6P => glyceraldehyde-3P + pyruvate [PATH:ko00030]
M00061  D-Glucuronate degradation, D-glucuronate => pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3P [PATH:ko00030]
M00308  Semi-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, gluconate => glycerate-3P [PATH:ko00030]
M00309  Non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, gluconate/galactonate => glycerate [PATH:ko00030]
M00580  Pentose phosphate pathway, archaea, fructose 6P => ribose 5P [PATH:ko00030]
M00631  D-Galacturonate degradation (bacteria), D-galacturonate => pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3P [PATH:ko00030]
M00633  Semi-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, gluconate/galactonate => glycerate-3P [PATH:ko00030]
Disease
H00196  Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase I superactivity
H00668  Anemia due to disorders of glutathione metabolism
H00946  Arts syndrome
H01111  Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD)
H01135  Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) deficiency
H01189  Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency
H01375  Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
H01952  Glycogen storage disease type XII
Other DBs
BSID: 289
GO: 0006098
Orthology
K01810  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9]
K06859  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, archaeal [EC:5.3.1.9]
K13810  transaldolase / glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9 2.2.1.2]
K15916  glucose/mannose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.8 5.3.1.9]
K00036  glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.363 1.1.1.49]
K19243  NAD+ dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.388]
K01057  6-phosphogluconolactonase [EC:3.1.1.31]
K07404  6-phosphogluconolactonase [EC:3.1.1.31]
K13937  hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:3.1.1.31 1.1.1.47]
K00033  6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.343 1.1.1.44]
K01783  ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.1]
K00615  transketolase [EC:2.2.1.1]
K00616  transaldolase [EC:2.2.1.2]
K01807  ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A [EC:5.3.1.6]
K01808  ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B [EC:5.3.1.6]
K13812  bifunctional enzyme Fae/Hps [EC:4.1.2.43 4.2.1.147]
K08093  3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase [EC:4.1.2.43]
K08094  6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase [EC:5.3.1.27]
K13831  3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase / 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase [EC:5.3.1.27 4.1.2.43]
K01621  xylulose-5-phosphate/fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase [EC:4.1.2.22 4.1.2.9]
K01619  deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.4]
K00852  ribokinase [EC:2.7.1.15]
K01839  phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7]
K22199  phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7]
K01835  phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2]
K15778  phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2 5.4.2.8]
K15779  phosphoglucomutase / phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7 5.4.2.2]
K05774  ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase [EC:2.7.4.23]
K00948  ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase [EC:2.7.6.1]
K01690  phosphogluconate dehydratase [EC:4.2.1.12]
K01625  2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphogluconate aldolase / (4S)-4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase [EC:4.1.3.42 4.1.2.14]
K17463  2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.14]
K11395  2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.55]
K00131  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.9]
K18978  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] [EC:1.2.1.90]
K00034  glucose 1-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.47]
K21840  hexose oxidase [EC:1.1.3.5]
K18124  glucose/galactose 1-dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.360]
K18125  aldose 1-dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] [EC:1.1.1.359]
K00115  glucose 1-dehydrogenase (FAD, quinone) [EC:1.1.5.9]
K19813  glucose dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.5.9]
K00117  quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.5.2]
K01053  gluconolactonase [EC:3.1.1.17]
K06151  gluconate 2-dehydrogenase alpha chain [EC:1.1.99.3]
K06152  gluconate 2-dehydrogenase gamma chain [EC:1.1.99.3]
K00090  glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate/2-ketogluconate reductase [EC:1.1.1.215 1.1.1.81 1.1.1.79]
K22229  2-ketogluconate reductase [EC:1.1.1.215]
K11441  dehydrogluconokinase [EC:2.7.1.13]
K00032  phosphogluconate 2-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.43]
K00851  gluconokinase [EC:2.7.1.12]
K05308  gluconate/galactonate dehydratase [EC:4.2.1.140]
K00874  2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase [EC:2.7.1.45]
K18126  2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase / 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactonokinase [EC:2.7.1.178]
K18127  2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.51]
K03738  aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.2.7.5]
K18020  glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase large subunit [EC:1.2.99.8]
K18021  glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase medium subunit [EC:1.2.99.8]
K18022  glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase small subunit [EC:1.2.99.8]
K18128  D-glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.89]
K11529  glycerate 2-kinase [EC:2.7.1.165]
K22345  glucosaminate ammonia-lyase [EC:4.3.1.9]
K17464  PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.203]
K17465  PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.203]
K17466  PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IIC component
K17467  PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IID component
K17468  D-glucosaminate-6-phosphate ammonia-lyase [EC:4.3.1.29]
K01623  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K11645  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01624  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class II [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01622  fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.11 4.1.2.13]
K16305  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase [EC:2.2.1.11 4.1.2.13]
K16306  fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase [EC:2.2.1.10 4.1.2.13]
K03841  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I [EC:3.1.3.11]
K02446  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II [EC:3.1.3.11]
K11532  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K01086  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K04041  fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase III [EC:3.1.3.11]
K00850  6-phosphofructokinase 1 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K16370  6-phosphofructokinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K21071  ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase / diphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase [EC:2.7.1.90 2.7.1.11]
K00918  ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase/glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147 2.7.1.146]
K00895  diphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase [EC:2.7.1.90]
Compound
C00022  Pyruvate
C00031  D-Glucose
C00117  D-Ribose 5-phosphate
C00118  D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00119  5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate
C00121  D-Ribose
C00197  3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00198  D-Glucono-1,5-lactone
C00199  D-Ribulose 5-phosphate
C00204  2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate
C00221  beta-D-Glucose
C00231  D-Xylulose 5-phosphate
C00257  D-Gluconic acid
C00258  D-Glycerate
C00279  D-Erythrose 4-phosphate
C00345  6-Phospho-D-gluconate
C00577  D-Glyceraldehyde
C00620  alpha-D-Ribose 1-phosphate
C00631  2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C00672  2-Deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate
C00673  2-Deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate
C01151  D-Ribose 1,5-bisphosphate
C01172  beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01218  6-Phospho-2-dehydro-D-gluconate
C01236  D-Glucono-1,5-lactone 6-phosphate
C01801  Deoxyribose
C03752  2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-gluconate
C04442  2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate
C05345  beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C05382  Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate
C06019  D-arabino-Hex-3-ulose 6-phosphate
C06473  2-Keto-D-gluconic acid
C20589  D-Glucosaminate-6-phosphate
Reference
(map 3)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
(map 4)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Hove-Jensen B, Rosenkrantz TJ, Haldimann A, Wanner BL.
  Title
Escherichia coli phnN, encoding ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase activity (phosphoribosyl diphosphate forming): dual role in phosphonate degradation and NAD biosynthesis pathways.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 185:2793-801 (2003)
DOI:10.1128/JB.185.9.2793-2801.2003
Reference
  Authors
Orita I, Sato T, Yurimoto H, Kato N, Atomi H, Imanaka T, Sakai Y
  Title
The ribulose monophosphate pathway substitutes for the missing pentose phosphate pathway in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:4698-704 (2006)
DOI:10.1128/JB.00492-06
Reference
  Authors
Kato N, Yurimoto H, Thauer RK
  Title
The physiological role of the ribulose monophosphate pathway in bacteria and archaea.
  Journal
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:10-21 (2006)
DOI:10.1271/bbb.70.10
Reference
  Authors
Kouril T, Wieloch P, Reimann J, Wagner M, Zaparty M, Albers SV, Schomburg D, Ruoff P, Siebers B
  Title
Unraveling the function of the two Entner-Doudoroff branches in the thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2.
  Journal
FEBS J 280:1126-38 (2013)
DOI:10.1111/febs.12106
Reference
  Authors
Reher M, Schonheit P
  Title
Glyceraldehyde dehydrogenases from the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeota Picrophilus torridus and Thermoplasma acidophilum, key enzymes of the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, constitute a novel enzyme family within the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 580:1198-204 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2006.01.029
Reference
  Authors
Reher M, Fuhrer T, Bott M, Schonheit P
  Title
The nonphosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway in the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeon Picrophilus torridus involves a novel 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate- specific aldolase.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 192:964-74 (2010)
DOI:10.1128/JB.01281-09

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