KEGG   PATHWAY: bta04014
bta04014                    Pathway                                

Ras signaling pathway - Bos taurus (cow)
The Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras proteins transduce signals from extracellular growth factors by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. The exchange of GTP for GDP on RAS is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Activated RAS (RAS-GTP) regulates multiple cellular functions through effectors including Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ral guanine nucleotide-dissociation stimulator (RALGDS).
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
Pathway map
bta04014  Ras signaling pathway

Other DBs
GO: 0032318
Bos taurus (cow) [GN:bta]
530315  EGF; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: pro-epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
540388  TGFA; protransforming growth factor alpha isoform X1 [KO:K08774]
281160  FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 [KO:K18496]
281161  FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 precursor [KO:K18497]
326284  FGF8; fibroblast growth factor 8 precursor [KO:K04358]
326285  FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10 precursor [KO:K04358]
539083  FGF20; fibroblast growth factor 20 [KO:K04358]
540317  FGF6; fibroblast growth factor 6 [KO:K04358]
616885  FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7 precursor [KO:K04358]
540758  FGF16; fibroblast growth factor 16 [KO:K04358]
618474  FGF4; fibroblast growth factor 4 precursor [KO:K04358]
533929  FGF18; fibroblast growth factor 18 precursor [KO:K04358]
519657  FGF22; fibroblast growth factor 22 precursor [KO:K04358]
618481  FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3 [KO:K04358]
100300257  FGF17; fibroblast growth factor 17 isoform X1 [KO:K04358]
536771  FGF5; fibroblast growth factor 5 precursor [KO:K04358]
613731  FGF9; fibroblast growth factor 9 [KO:K04358]
521475  FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19 [KO:K22603]
785576  FGF21; fibroblast growth factor 21 [KO:K22429]
530239  FGF23; fibroblast growth factor 23 [KO:K22428]
281350  NGF; beta-nerve growth factor precursor [KO:K02582]
617701  BDNF; brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor [KO:K04355]
532393  NTF3; neurotrophin-3 precursor [KO:K04356]
506660  NTF4; neurotrophin-4 precursor [KO:K12457]
280829  INS; insulin preproprotein [KO:K04526]
281239  IGF1; insulin-like growth factor I preproprotein [KO:K05459]
281240  IGF2; insulin-like growth factor II precursor [KO:K13769]
505908  PDGFA; platelet-derived growth factor subunit A precursor [KO:K04359]
540106  PDGFB; platelet-derived growth factor subunit B precursor [KO:K17386]
613787  PDGFC; platelet-derived growth factor C isoform X1 [KO:K05450]
525931  PDGFD; platelet-derived growth factor D [KO:K05450]
281094  CSF1; macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 precursor [KO:K05453]
281885  KITLG; kit ligand precursor [KO:K05461]
282233  FLT3LG; fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand precursor [KO:K05454]
281572  VEGFA; vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform 3 precursor [KO:K05448]
282121  VEGFB; vascular endothelial growth factor B precursor [KO:K16858]
280894  PGF; placenta growth factor precursor [KO:K16859]
286799  VEGFD; vascular endothelial growth factor D precursor [KO:K05449]
282122  VEGFC; vascular endothelial growth factor C precursor [KO:K05449]
282879  HGF; hepatocyte growth factor precursor [KO:K05460]
282140  ANGPT1; angiopoietin-1 precursor [KO:K05465]
282141  ANGPT2; angiopoietin-2 precursor [KO:K05466]
617915  ANGPT4; angiopoietin-4 precursor [KO:K05467]
615879  EFNA4; ephrin-A4 precursor [KO:K05462]
616742  EFNA5; ephrin-A5 precursor [KO:K05462]
507319  EFNA1; ephrin-A1 precursor [KO:K05462]
614453  EFNA2; ephrin-A2 precursor [KO:K05462]
540776  EFNA3; ephrin-A3 precursor [KO:K05462]
407217  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:]
281768  FGFR1; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 precursor [KO:K04362] [EC:]
404193  FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [KO:K05093] [EC:]
281769  FGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 precursor [KO:K05094] [EC:]
317696  FGFR4; fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 precursor [KO:K05095] [EC:]
353110  NGFR; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 16 precursor [KO:K02583]
353111  NTRK1; high affinity nerve growth factor receptor isoform X1 [KO:K03176] [EC:]
505824  NTRK2; BDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptor precursor [KO:K04360] [EC:]
408017  INSR; insulin receptor isoform X1 [KO:K04527] [EC:]
281848  IGF1R; insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor [KO:K05087] [EC:]
282301  PDGFRA; platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha precursor [KO:K04363] [EC:]
527165  PDGFRB; platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta precursor [KO:K05089] [EC:]
509418  CSF1R; macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor precursor [KO:K05090] [EC:]
280832  KIT; mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit precursor [KO:K05091] [EC:]
512700  FLT3; receptor-type tyrosine-protein kinase FLT3 isoform X1 [KO:K05092] [EC:]
503620  FLT1; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 precursor [KO:K05096] [EC:]
338031  FLT4; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 isoform X1 [KO:K05097] [EC:]
407170  KDR; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 precursor [KO:K05098] [EC:]
280855  MET; hepatocyte growth factor receptor precursor [KO:K05099] [EC:]
280939  TEK; angiopoietin-1 receptor precursor [KO:K05121] [EC:]
512798  EPHA2; ephrin type-A receptor 2 precursor [KO:K05103] [EC:]
535298  GRB2; growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
540085  GAB1; GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 [KO:K09593]
529346  GAB2; GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 isoform X2 [KO:K08091]
507196  SHC1; SHC-transforming protein 1 isoform b [KO:K06279]
533455  SHC2; SHC-transforming protein 2 [KO:K17447]
512696  SHC3; SHC-transforming protein 3 isoform X1 [KO:K17448]
524734  SHC4; SHC-transforming protein 4 [KO:K17449]
533590  PTPN11; tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 isoform X3 [KO:K07293] [EC:]
537682  SOS1; son of sevenless homolog 1 isoform X1 [KO:K03099]
100138040  SOS2; son of sevenless homolog 2 isoform X1 [KO:K03099]
281987  PLCG1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 [KO:K01116] [EC:]
100337091  PLCG2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-2 [KO:K05859] [EC:]
533125  RASGRP1; RAS guanyl-releasing protein 1 [KO:K04350]
512056  RASGRP2; RAS guanyl-releasing protein 2 [KO:K12361]
523745  RASGRP3; ras guanyl-releasing protein 3 [KO:K12362]
529375  RASGRP4; RAS guanyl-releasing protein 4 [KO:K12363]
100300850  T cell receptor alpha variable 18 [KO:K10784]
786717  T cell receptor alpha variable 18 [KO:K10784]
100296565  T cell receptor alpha variable 18 [KO:K10784]
509513  uncharacterized LOC509513 precursor [KO:K10785]
100300510  T-cell receptor beta-1 chain C region [KO:K10785]
504509  ZAP70; tyrosine-protein kinase ZAP-70 [KO:K07360] [EC:]
514735  LAT; linker for activation of T-cells family member 1 precursor [KO:K07362]
538510  HTR7; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 isoform X2 [KO:K04163]
281201  GNB1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 [KO:K04536]
281202  GNB2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 [KO:K04537]
513340  GNB3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 [KO:K07825]
525962  GNB4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 [KO:K04538]
535365  GNB5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 [KO:K04539]
281203  GNG2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 precursor [KO:K07826]
281204  GNG3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 precursor [KO:K04540]
100125276  GNG4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 [KO:K04541]
287018  GNG5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 precursor [KO:K04542]
104968964  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 [KO:K04542]
618399  GNG7; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 precursor [KO:K04543]
618470  GNG8; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-8 [KO:K04544]
613930  GNG10; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10 [KO:K04545]
511812  GNG11; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11 precursor [KO:K04546]
286850  GNG12; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 precursor [KO:K04347]
529425  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12-like [KO:K04347]
517006  GNG13; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13 [KO:K04547]
281796  GNGT1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 precursor [KO:K04548]
281797  GNGT2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2 precursor [KO:K04549]
282322  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
282323  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:]
520039  RASGRF1; ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1 [KO:K04349]
524957  RASGRF2; ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 isoform X1 [KO:K12326]
100336579  GRIN1; glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05208]
524212  GRIN2A; glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A [KO:K05209]
537804  GRIN2B; glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B precursor [KO:K05210]
326597  CALM; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
520277  CALM3; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
617095  CALM1; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
520404  CALML5; calmodulin-like protein 5 [KO:K02183]
100297344  CALM2; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
617412  CALML6; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: calmodulin-like protein 6 [KO:K02183]
104973792  calcium-dependent protein kinase 10 [KO:K02183]
539277  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 [KO:K02183]
100298939  HRAS; GTPase HRas isoform 1 [KO:K02833]
100847184  GTPase HRas-like [KO:K02833]
541140  KRAS; GTPase KRas [KO:K07827]
506322  NRAS; GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
540803  MRAS; ras-related protein M-Ras [KO:K07831]
616503  RRAS; ras-related protein R-Ras [KO:K07829]
519269  RRAS2; ras-related protein R-Ras2 [KO:K07830]
280877  NF1; neurofibromin [KO:K08052]
282032  RASA1; ras GTPase-activating protein 1 [KO:K04352]
533491  RASA2; ras GTPase-activating protein 2 [KO:K08053]
282532  RASA3; ras GTPase-activating protein 3 [KO:K12380]
521224  ras GTPase-activating protein 4 [KO:K17630]
790307  SYNGAP1; ras/Rap GTPase-activating protein SynGAP [KO:K17631]
512872  RASAL1; rasGAP-activating-like protein 1 isoform X1 [KO:K17632]
540692  RASAL2; ras GTPase-activating protein nGAP isoform X6 [KO:K17633]
540027  RASAL3; RAS protein activator like-3 [KO:K17634]
510276  RASSF1; ras association domain-containing protein 1 [KO:K09850]
539767  RASSF5; ras association domain-containing protein 5 [KO:K08015]
514886  STK4; serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 [KO:K04411]
536517  TIAM1; T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05731]
281440  RAC1; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 precursor [KO:K04392]
327671  RAC2; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 precursor [KO:K07860]
619066  RAC3; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 [KO:K07861]
533729  PAK1; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1 [KO:K04409] [EC:]
513673  PAK2; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2 [KO:K04410] [EC:]
534526  PAK3; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 3 [KO:K05733] [EC:]
539742  PAK4; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 4 [KO:K05734] [EC:]
513432  PAK5; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 7 [KO:K05736] [EC:]
539224  PAK6; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 6 [KO:K05735] [EC:]
338049  RHOA; transforming protein RhoA precursor [KO:K04513]
282306  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:]
517948  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:]
504531  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:]
282308  PIK3R2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta [KO:K02649]
286865  PIK3R3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K02649]
282307  PIK3R1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha [KO:K02649]
534923  AKT2; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:]
280991  AKT1; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:]
100137872  AKT3; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:]
281855  IKBKG; NF-kappa-B essential modulator [KO:K07210]
281073  CHUK; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha [KO:K04467] [EC:]
281854  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:]
616115  NFKB1; nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit [KO:K02580]
508233  RELA; transcription factor p65 [KO:K04735]
615013  BAD; bcl2-associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
282152  BCL2L1; bcl-2-like protein 1 [KO:K04570]
618793  FOXO4; forkhead box protein O4 [KO:K12358]
407111  FASLG; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6 [KO:K04389]
504856  AFDN; afadin isoform X1 [KO:K05702]
511417  SHOC2; leucine-rich repeat protein SHOC-2 [KO:K19613]
521196  RAF1; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
533199  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
510434  MAP2K2; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
327672  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
531391  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
515900  PLA1A; phospholipase A1 member A precursor [KO:K13618] [EC:]
282457  PLA2G1B; phospholipase A2 preproprotein [KO:K01047] [EC:]
503625  PLA2G2D4; calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 PLA2G2D4 precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
494318  PLA2G2D1; calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 PLA2G2D1 precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
613966  group 10 secretory phospholipase A2 isoform X2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
527631  PLA2G3; group 3 secretory phospholipase A2 precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
521383  PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2, membrane associated precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
614911  PLA2G5; calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
506243  PLA2G2E; group IIE secretory phospholipase A2 precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
507201  PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2, membrane associated precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
504978  PLA2G2C; putative inactive group IIC secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
541294  PLA2G2F; group IIF secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
527214  PLA2G12A; group XIIA secretory phospholipase A2 precursor [KO:K01047] [EC:]
615045  phospholipase A2, membrane associated [KO:K01047] [EC:]
100337447  PLA2G12B; group XIIB secretory phospholipase A2-like protein isoform X1 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
526364  PLA2G4E; cytosolic phospholipase A2 epsilon [KO:K16342] [EC:]
505485  PLA2G4B; cytosolic phospholipase A2 beta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
522866  PLA2G4F; cytosolic phospholipase A2 zeta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
531209  PLA2G4D; cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
525072  PLA2G4A; cytosolic phospholipase A2 [KO:K16342] [EC:]
535381  PLA2G6; 85/88 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2 isoform X1 [KO:K16343] [EC:]
506802  PLA2G16; group XVI phospholipase A2 [KO:K16817] [EC:]
100336631  HRAS-like suppressor 3 [KO:K16817] [EC:]
614402  HRAS-like suppressor 3 [KO:K16817] [EC:]
618367  uncharacterized protein LOC618367 [KO:K16817] [EC:]
786886  ELK1; ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1 [KO:K04375]
540313  ETS1; protein C-ets-1 [KO:K02678]
281148  ETS2; protein C-ets-2 [KO:K21932]
518844  BRAP; BRCA1-associated protein [KO:K10632] [EC:]
100138565  KSR1; kinase suppressor of Ras 1 isoform X1 [KO:K14958]
617325  KSR2; kinase suppressor of Ras 2 [KO:K18529] [EC:]
519566  RAPGEF5; rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 isoform X1 [KO:K08019]
282031  RAP1A; ras-related protein Rap-1A precursor [KO:K04353]
327708  RAP1B; ras-related protein Rap-1b precursor [KO:K07836]
789148  ras-related protein Rap-1b [KO:K07836]
513723  RALGDS; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator [KO:K08732]
522344  RGL1; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator-like 1 [KO:K17635]
504334  RGL2; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator-like 2 [KO:K17636]
538477  RALA; ras-related protein Ral-A [KO:K07834]
505238  RALB; ras-related protein Ral-B [KO:K07835]
539941  MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
534125  MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
537631  MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 isoform 2 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
513431  EXOC2; exocyst complex component 2 [KO:K17637]
533141  TBK1; serine/threonine-protein kinase TBK1 [KO:K05410] [EC:]
509135  REL; proto-oncogene c-Rel [KO:K09254]
522159  PLD2; phospholipase D2 [KO:K01115] [EC:]
514554  PLD1; phospholipase D1 [KO:K01115] [EC:]
523324  RALBP1; ralA-binding protein 1 [KO:K08773]
532712  CDC42; cell division control protein 42 homolog precursor [KO:K04393]
519037  PLCE1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase epsilon-1 [KO:K05860] [EC:]
282001  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type [KO:K02677] [EC:]
282325  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:]
282002  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:]
509295  RIN1; ras and Rab interactor 1 [KO:K17638]
540876  ABL1; tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 [KO:K06619] [EC:]
511845  ABL2; Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 [KO:K08887] [EC:]
539764  RAB5A; ras-related protein Rab-5A [KO:K07887]
539150  RAB5B; ras-related protein Rab-5B [KO:K07888]
613749  RAB5C; ras-related protein Rab-5C [KO:K07889]
100294979  ARF6; ADP-ribosylation factor 6 [KO:K07941]
C00035  GDP
C00044  GTP
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
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Targeting protein prenylation for cancer therapy.
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Death pathways triggered by activated Ras in cancer cells.
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Cancer targets in the Ras pathway.
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The dark side of Ras: regulation of apoptosis.
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Targeting Ras in myeloid leukemias.
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Pino MS, Chung DC
The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer.
Gastroenterology 138:2059-72 (2010)
Schrader JW, Schallhorn A, Grill B, Guo X
Activation of small GTPases of the Ras and Rho family by growth factors active on mast cells.
Mol Immunol 38:1181-6 (2002)
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Regulating the regulator: post-translational modification of RAS.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13:39-51 (2012)
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A novel potential effector of M-Ras and p21 Ras negatively regulates p21 Ras-mediated gene induction and cell growth.
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Goldfinger LE, Ptak C, Jeffery ED, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Ginsberg MH
RLIP76 (RalBP1) is an R-Ras effector that mediates adhesion-dependent Rac activation and cell migration.
J Cell Biol 174:877-88 (2006)
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Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in thymocytes and T cells.
Trends Immunol 34:259-68 (2013)
Roberts DM, Anderson AL, Hidaka M, Swetenburg RL, Patterson C, Stanford WL, Bautch VL
A vascular gene trap screen defines RasGRP3 as an angiogenesis-regulated gene required for the endothelial response to phorbol esters.
Mol Cell Biol 24:10515-28 (2004)
Reuther GW, Der CJ
The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don't fall far from the tree.
Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:157-65 (2000)
Fernandez-Medarde A, Santos E
The RasGrf family of mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1815:170-88 (2011)
Iwashita S, Song SY
RasGAPs: a crucial regulator of extracellular stimuli for homeostasis of cellular functions.
Mol Biosyst 4:213-22 (2008)
Ory S, Morrison DK
Signal transduction: implications for Ras-dependent ERK signaling.
Curr Biol 14:R277-8 (2004)
Matheny SA, White MA
Signaling threshold regulation by the Ras effector IMP.
J Biol Chem 284:11007-11 (2009)
Lemmon MA, Schlessinger J
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
Cell 141:1117-34 (2010)
Skaper SD
The neurotrophin family of neurotrophic factors: an overview.
Methods Mol Biol 846:1-12 (2012)
bta04010  MAPK signaling pathway
bta04015  Rap1 signaling pathway
bta04020  Calcium signaling pathway
bta04144  Endocytosis
bta04151  PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
bta04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
bta04720  Long-term potentiation
bta04810  Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
KO pathway

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