KEGG   PATHWAY: rno04610
rno04610                    Pathway                                

Complement and coagulation cascades - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
The complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. All of these pathways generate a crucial enzymatic activity that, in turn, generates the effector molecules of complement. The main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens. Blood coagulation is another series of proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions, culminating the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot. Protease-activated receptors, such as those activated by thrombin, are members of G protein-coupled receptors and function as a mediator of innate immunity. The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning.
Organismal Systems; Immune system
Pathway map
rno04610  Complement and coagulation cascades

Rattus norvegicus (rat) [GN:rno]
25584  F3; tissue factor precursor [KO:K03901]
260320  F7; coagulation factor VII precursor [KO:K01320] [EC:]
29243  F10; coagulation factor X precursor [KO:K01314] [EC:]
304929  F5; coagulation factor V [KO:K03902]
29251  F2; prothrombin precursor [KO:K01313] [EC:]
306761  F12; coagulation factor XII precursor [KO:K01328] [EC:]
290757  F11; coagulation factor XI [KO:K01323] [EC:]
24946  F9; coagulation factor IX precursor [KO:K01321] [EC:]
116669  Vwf; von Willebrand factor precursor [KO:K03900]
302470  F8; coagulation factor VIII precursor [KO:K03899]
83580  Thbd; thrombomodulin precursor [KO:K03907]
362248  Procr; endothelial protein C receptor precursor [KO:K06557]
25268  Proc; vitamin K-dependent protein C precursor [KO:K01344] [EC:]
25439  F2r; proteinase-activated receptor 1 precursor [KO:K03914]
29636  F2rl2; proteinase-activated receptor 3 precursor [KO:K04235]
116498  F2rl3; proteinase-activated receptor 4 [KO:K04236]
60327  F13a1; coagulation factor XIII A chain [KO:K03917] [EC:]
289055  F13b; coagulation factor XIII B chain precursor [KO:K03906]
113936  Cpb2; carboxypeptidase B2 precursor [KO:K01300] [EC:]
361969  Fga; fibrinogen alpha chain isoform 1 precursor [KO:K03903]
24366  Fgb; fibrinogen beta chain precursor [KO:K03904]
24367  Fgg; fibrinogen gamma chain precursor [KO:K03905]
25048  Klkb1; plasma kallikrein precursor [KO:K01324] [EC:]
24903  Kng2; T-kininogen 1 precursor [KO:K03898]
25087  Kng2l1; kininogen-1 isoform 1 precursor [KO:K03898]
288001  Kng1; T-kininogen 2 precursor [KO:K03898]
81509  Bdkrb1; B1 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03915]
25245  Bdkrb2; B2 bradykinin receptor isoform 2 [KO:K03916]
85253  Plg; plasminogen precursor [KO:K01315] [EC:]
29436  Tfpi; tissue factor pathway inhibitor isoform 1 precursor [KO:K03909]
304917  Serpinc1; antithrombin-III precursor [KO:K03911]
79224  Serpind1; heparin cofactor 2 precursor [KO:K03912]
65051  Serpina5; plasma serine protease inhibitor isoform 1 [KO:K03913]
81750  Pros1; vitamin K-dependent protein S precursor [KO:K03908]
24617  Serpine1; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 precursor [KO:K03982]
60325  Serpinb2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 type A [KO:K19821]
25692  Plat; tissue-type plasminogen activator precursor [KO:K01343] [EC:]
25619  Plau; urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor [KO:K01348] [EC:]
50692  Plaur; urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor isoform 2 precursor [KO:K03985]
24648  Serpina1; alpha-1-antiproteinase precursor [KO:K03984]
287527  Serpinf2; alpha-2-antiplasmin precursor [KO:K03983]
24153  A2m; alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor [KO:K03910]
294257  Cfb; complement factor B precursor [KO:K01335] [EC:]
54249  Cfd; complement factor D precursor [KO:K01334] [EC:]
24232  C3; complement C3 precursor [KO:K03990]
362119  C5; complement C5 precursor [KO:K03994]
24237  C6; complement component C6 precursor [KO:K03995]
117517  C7; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: complement component C7 [KO:K03996]
298288  C8a; complement component C8 alpha chain precursor [KO:K03997]
313421  C8b; complement component C8 beta chain precursor [KO:K03998]
296545  C8g; complement component C8 gamma chain [KO:K03999]
117512  C9; complement component C9 [KO:K04000]
298566  C1qa; complement C1q subcomponent subunit A precursor [KO:K03986]
29687  C1qb; complement C1q subcomponent subunit B precursor [KO:K03987]
362634  C1qc; complement C1q subcomponent subunit C precursor [KO:K03988]
312705  C1r; complement C1r subcomponent precursor [KO:K01330] [EC:]
192262  C1s; complement C1s subcomponent precursor [KO:K01331] [EC:]
24548  Mbl1; mannose-binding protein A precursor [KO:K03991]
64668  Mbl2; mannose-binding protein C precursor [KO:K03991]
64023  Masp1; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 precursor [KO:K03992] [EC:3.4.21.-]
64459  Masp2; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 precursor [KO:K03993] [EC:]
24231  C2; complement C2 precursor [KO:K01332] [EC:]
24233  C4a; complement C4 precursor [KO:K03989]
406161  C4b; complement component 4, gene 2 precursor [KO:K03989]
84007  C3ar1; C3a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor [KO:K04009]
312102  Vsig4; V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein 4 precursor [KO:K19822]
54243  Cr1l; complement component receptor 1-like protein isoform 2 precursor [KO:K04011]
289395  Cr2; complement receptor type 2 precursor [KO:K04012]
25021  Itgam; integrin alpha-M precursor [KO:K06461]
309684  Itgb2; integrin beta-2 precursor [KO:K06464]
499271  Itgax; integrin alpha-X isoform X3 [KO:K06462]
113959  C5ar1; C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1 [KO:K04010]
155012  Cfh; complement factor H precursor [KO:K04004]
79126  Cfi; complement factor I precursor [KO:K01333] [EC:]
295703  Serping1; plasma protease C1 inhibitor precursor [KO:K04001]
64036  Cd55; complement decay-accelerating factor precursor [KO:K04006]
29333  Cd46; membrane cofactor protein precursor [KO:K04007]
365577  RGD1559810; membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
24235  C4bpa; C4b-binding protein alpha chain [KO:K04002]
24236  C4bpb; C4b-binding protein beta chain precursor [KO:K04003]
100361907  complement factor H-related protein 2-like isoform X3 [KO:K23815]
289057  Cfhr1; complement factor H-related protein 1 precursor [KO:K23815]
688887  Cfhr2; complement factor H-related protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K23816]
25407  Cd59; CD59 glycoprotein precursor [KO:K04008]
24854  Clu; clusterin precursor [KO:K17252]
29169  Vtn; vitronectin precursor [KO:K06251]
C00290  Fibrin
Bajic G, Degn SE, Thiel S, Andersen GR
Complement activation, regulation, and molecular basis for complement-related diseases.
EMBO J 34:2735-57 (2015)
Mathern DR, Heeger PS
Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1636-50 (2015)
Merle NS, Church SE, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Roumenina LT
Complement System Part I - Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Regulation.
Front Immunol 6:262 (2015)
Oikonomopoulou K, Ricklin D, Ward PA, Lambris JD
Interactions between coagulation and complement--their role in inflammation.
Semin Immunopathol 34:151-65 (2012)
Kurosawa S, Stearns-Kurosawa DJ
Complement, thrombotic microangiopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
J Intensive Care 2:65 (2014)
Hillmeister P, Persson PB
The Kallikrein-Kinin system.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) 206:215-9 (2012)
Rau JC, Beaulieu LM, Huntington JA, Church FC
Serpins in thrombosis, hemostasis and fibrinolysis.
J Thromb Haemost 5 Suppl 1:102-15 (2007)
Crooks MG, Hart SP
Coagulation and anticoagulation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Eur Respir Rev 24:392-9 (2015)
Christiaans SC, Wagener BM, Esmon CT, Pittet JF
Protein C and acute inflammation: a clinical and biological perspective.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 305:L455-66 (2013)
Alberelli MA, De Candia E
Functional role of protease activated receptors in vascular biology.
Vascul Pharmacol 62:72-81 (2014)
Smith HW, Marshall CJ
Regulation of cell signalling by uPAR.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 11:23-36 (2010)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: pathophysiological mechanisms.
J Immunol 190:3831-8 (2013)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: therapeutic interventions.
J Immunol 190:3839-47 (2013)
Loof TG, Deicke C, Medina E
The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:128 (2014)
Jozsi M, Tortajada A, Uzonyi B, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Rodriguez de Cordoba S
Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.
Trends Immunol 36:374-84 (2015)
rno04611  Platelet activation
rno04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
rno04750  Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels
KO pathway

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