KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04014Help
Entry
hsa04014                    Pathway                                

Name
Ras signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
The Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras proteins transduce signals from extracellular growth factors by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. The exchange of GTP for GDP on RAS is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Activated RAS (RAS-GTP) regulates multiple cellular functions through effectors including Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ral guanine nucleotide-dissociation stimulator (RALGDS).
Class
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa04014  Ras signaling pathway
hsa04014

Ortholog table
Network
N00001  EGF-EGFR-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00015  PDGF-PDGFR-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00019  FGF-FGFR-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00030  EGF-EGFR-RAS-PI3K signaling pathway
N00096  EGF-EGFR-RAS-RASSF1 signaling pathway
N00103  EGF-EGFR-RAS-RalGDS signaling pathway
N00215  KITLG-KIT-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00216  HGF-MET-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00229  TGFA-EGFR-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00233  IGF2-IGF1R-RAS-ERK signaling pathway
Disease
H00505  FGFR3-related short limb skeletal dysplasia
H01437  Neurofibromatosis type 1
H01738  Noonan syndrome
H01747  Costello syndrome
H01984  Leopard syndrome
H02068  Hypochondroplasia
H02069  SADDAN
Drug
D00967  Toremifene citrate (JAN/USAN)
D08279  Tozasertib (USAN)
D08344  Tozasertib lactate (USAN)
D08620  Toremifene (INN)
D10173  Tivantinib (JAN/USAN/INN)
D10224  Golvatinib (USAN)
D10465  Golvatinib tartrate (USAN)
D11038  Ulixertinib (INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 868085
GO: 0032318
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
1950  EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
7039  TGFA; transforming growth factor alpha [KO:K08774]
2246  FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 [KO:K18496]
2247  FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 [KO:K18497]
2248  FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3 [KO:K04358]
2249  FGF4; fibroblast growth factor 4 [KO:K04358]
8822  FGF17; fibroblast growth factor 17 [KO:K04358]
2251  FGF6; fibroblast growth factor 6 [KO:K04358]
2252  FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7 [KO:K04358]
2253  FGF8; fibroblast growth factor 8 [KO:K04358]
2254  FGF9; fibroblast growth factor 9 [KO:K04358]
2255  FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10 [KO:K04358]
8823  FGF16; fibroblast growth factor 16 [KO:K04358]
2250  FGF5; fibroblast growth factor 5 [KO:K04358]
8817  FGF18; fibroblast growth factor 18 [KO:K04358]
26281  FGF20; fibroblast growth factor 20 [KO:K04358]
27006  FGF22; fibroblast growth factor 22 [KO:K04358]
9965  FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19 [KO:K22603]
26291  FGF21; fibroblast growth factor 21 [KO:K22429]
8074  FGF23; fibroblast growth factor 23 [KO:K22428]
4803  NGF; nerve growth factor [KO:K02582]
627  BDNF; brain derived neurotrophic factor [KO:K04355]
4908  NTF3; neurotrophin 3 [KO:K04356]
4909  NTF4; neurotrophin 4 [KO:K12457]
3630  INS; insulin [KO:K04526]
3479  IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 [KO:K05459]
3481  IGF2; insulin like growth factor 2 [KO:K13769]
5154  PDGFA; platelet derived growth factor subunit A [KO:K04359]
5155  PDGFB; platelet derived growth factor subunit B [KO:K17386]
56034  PDGFC; platelet derived growth factor C [KO:K05450]
80310  PDGFD; platelet derived growth factor D [KO:K05450]
1435  CSF1; colony stimulating factor 1 [KO:K05453]
4254  KITLG; KIT ligand [KO:K05461]
2323  FLT3LG; fms related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand [KO:K05454]
7422  VEGFA; vascular endothelial growth factor A [KO:K05448]
7423  VEGFB; vascular endothelial growth factor B [KO:K16858]
5228  PGF; placental growth factor [KO:K16859]
7424  VEGFC; vascular endothelial growth factor C [KO:K05449]
2277  VEGFD; vascular endothelial growth factor D [KO:K05449]
3082  HGF; hepatocyte growth factor [KO:K05460]
284  ANGPT1; angiopoietin 1 [KO:K05465]
285  ANGPT2; angiopoietin 2 [KO:K05466]
51378  ANGPT4; angiopoietin 4 [KO:K05467]
1942  EFNA1; ephrin A1 [KO:K05462]
1943  EFNA2; ephrin A2 [KO:K05462]
1944  EFNA3; ephrin A3 [KO:K05462]
1945  EFNA4; ephrin A4 [KO:K05462]
1946  EFNA5; ephrin A5 [KO:K05462]
1956  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2260  FGFR1; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [KO:K04362] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2263  FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [KO:K05093] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2261  FGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [KO:K05094] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2264  FGFR4; fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 [KO:K05095] [EC:2.7.10.1]
4804  NGFR; nerve growth factor receptor [KO:K02583]
4914  NTRK1; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 [KO:K03176] [EC:2.7.10.1]
4915  NTRK2; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K04360] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3643  INSR; insulin receptor [KO:K04527] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3480  IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
5156  PDGFRA; platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha [KO:K04363] [EC:2.7.10.1]
5159  PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta [KO:K05089] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1436  CSF1R; colony stimulating factor 1 receptor [KO:K05090] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3815  KIT; KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05091] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2322  FLT3; fms related tyrosine kinase 3 [KO:K05092] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2321  FLT1; fms related tyrosine kinase 1 [KO:K05096] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2324  FLT4; fms related tyrosine kinase 4 [KO:K05097] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3791  KDR; kinase insert domain receptor [KO:K05098] [EC:2.7.10.1]
4233  MET; MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05099] [EC:2.7.10.1]
7010  TEK; TEK receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05121] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1969  EPHA2; EPH receptor A2 [KO:K05103] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
2549  GAB1; GRB2 associated binding protein 1 [KO:K09593]
9846  GAB2; GRB2 associated binding protein 2 [KO:K08091]
6464  SHC1; SHC adaptor protein 1 [KO:K06279]
25759  SHC2; SHC adaptor protein 2 [KO:K17447]
53358  SHC3; SHC adaptor protein 3 [KO:K17448]
399694  SHC4; SHC adaptor protein 4 [KO:K17449]
5781  PTPN11; protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 [KO:K07293] [EC:3.1.3.48]
6654  SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
5335  PLCG1; phospholipase C gamma 1 [KO:K01116] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5336  PLCG2; phospholipase C gamma 2 [KO:K05859] [EC:3.1.4.11]
10125  RASGRP1; RAS guanyl releasing protein 1 [KO:K04350]
10235  RASGRP2; RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 [KO:K12361]
25780  RASGRP3; RAS guanyl releasing protein 3 [KO:K12362]
115727  RASGRP4; RAS guanyl releasing protein 4 [KO:K12363]
7535  ZAP70; zeta chain of T cell receptor associated protein kinase 70 [KO:K07360] [EC:2.7.10.2]
27040  LAT; linker for activation of T cells [KO:K07362]
3363  HTR7; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 [KO:K04163]
2782  GNB1; G protein subunit beta 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  GNB2; G protein subunit beta 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  GNB3; G protein subunit beta 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  GNB4; G protein subunit beta 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  GNB5; G protein subunit beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  GNG2; G protein subunit gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  GNG3; G protein subunit gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  GNG4; G protein subunit gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  GNG5; G protein subunit gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  GNG7; G protein subunit gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  GNG8; G protein subunit gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  GNG10; G protein subunit gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  GNG11; G protein subunit gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  GNG12; G protein subunit gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
51764  GNG13; G protein subunit gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  GNGT1; G protein subunit gamma transducin 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  GNGT2; G protein subunit gamma transducin 2 [KO:K04549]
5566  PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5923  RASGRF1; Ras protein specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 1 [KO:K04349]
5924  RASGRF2; Ras protein specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 [KO:K12326]
2902  GRIN1; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 [KO:K05208]
2903  GRIN2A; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A [KO:K05209]
2904  GRIN2B; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B [KO:K05210]
810  CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
808  CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
801  CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
163688  CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
91860  CALML4; calmodulin like 4 [KO:K02183]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
22808  MRAS; muscle RAS oncogene homolog [KO:K07831]
6237  RRAS; RAS related [KO:K07829]
22800  RRAS2; RAS related 2 [KO:K07830]
4763  NF1; neurofibromin 1 [KO:K08052]
5921  RASA1; RAS p21 protein activator 1 [KO:K04352]
5922  RASA2; RAS p21 protein activator 2 [KO:K08053]
22821  RASA3; RAS p21 protein activator 3 [KO:K12380]
10156  RASA4; RAS p21 protein activator 4 [KO:K17630]
100271927  RASA4B; RAS p21 protein activator 4B [KO:K17630]
8831  SYNGAP1; synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1 [KO:K17631]
8437  RASAL1; RAS protein activator like 1 [KO:K17632]
9462  RASAL2; RAS protein activator like 2 [KO:K17633]
64926  RASAL3; RAS protein activator like 3 [KO:K17634]
11186  RASSF1; Ras association domain family member 1 [KO:K09850]
83593  RASSF5; Ras association domain family member 5 [KO:K08015]
6789  STK4; serine/threonine kinase 4 [KO:K04411]
7074  TIAM1; T cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 [KO:K05731]
5879  RAC1; Rac family small GTPase 1 [KO:K04392]
5880  RAC2; Rac family small GTPase 2 [KO:K07860]
5881  RAC3; Rac family small GTPase 3 [KO:K07861]
5058  PAK1; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1 [KO:K04409] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5062  PAK2; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2 [KO:K04410] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5063  PAK3; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 3 [KO:K05733] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10298  PAK4; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 4 [KO:K05734] [EC:2.7.11.1]
57144  PAK5; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 5 [KO:K05736] [EC:2.7.11.1]
56924  PAK6; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 6 [KO:K05735] [EC:2.7.11.1]
106821730  BUB1B-PAK6; BUB1B-PAK6 readthrough [KO:K05735] [EC:2.7.11.1]
387  RHOA; ras homolog family member A [KO:K04513]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
1147  CHUK; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3551  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
572  BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
598  BCL2L1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
4303  FOXO4; forkhead box O4 [KO:K12358]
356  FASLG; Fas ligand [KO:K04389]
4301  AFDN; afadin, adherens junction formation factor [KO:K05702]
8036  SHOC2; SHOC2, leucine rich repeat scaffold protein [KO:K19613]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
51365  PLA1A; phospholipase A1 member A [KO:K13618] [EC:3.1.1.-]
8399  PLA2G10; phospholipase A2 group X [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
26279  PLA2G2D; phospholipase A2 group IID [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
30814  PLA2G2E; phospholipase A2 group IIE [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
50487  PLA2G3; phospholipase A2 group III [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
64600  PLA2G2F; phospholipase A2 group IIF [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
81579  PLA2G12A; phospholipase A2 group XIIA [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
84647  PLA2G12B; phospholipase A2 group XIIB [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5319  PLA2G1B; phospholipase A2 group IB [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5322  PLA2G5; phospholipase A2 group V [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5320  PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2 group IIA [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
391013  PLA2G2C; phospholipase A2 group IIC [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
123745  PLA2G4E; phospholipase A2 group IVE [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5321  PLA2G4A; phospholipase A2 group IVA [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
8681  JMJD7-PLA2G4B; JMJD7-PLA2G4B readthrough [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
100137049  PLA2G4B; phospholipase A2 group IVB [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
8605  PLA2G4C; phospholipase A2 group IVC [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
283748  PLA2G4D; phospholipase A2 group IVD [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
255189  PLA2G4F; phospholipase A2 group IVF [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
8398  PLA2G6; phospholipase A2 group VI [KO:K16343] [EC:3.1.1.4]
11145  PLA2G16; phospholipase A2 group XVI [KO:K16817] [EC:3.1.1.4 3.1.1.32]
2002  ELK1; ELK1, ETS transcription factor [KO:K04375]
2113  ETS1; ETS proto-oncogene 1, transcription factor [KO:K02678]
2114  ETS2; ETS proto-oncogene 2, transcription factor [KO:K21932]
8315  BRAP; BRCA1 associated protein [KO:K10632] [EC:2.3.2.27]
8844  KSR1; kinase suppressor of ras 1 [KO:K14958]
283455  KSR2; kinase suppressor of ras 2 [KO:K18529] [EC:2.7.11.1]
9771  RAPGEF5; Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 [KO:K08019]
5906  RAP1A; RAP1A, member of RAS oncogene family [KO:K04353]
5908  RAP1B; RAP1B, member of RAS oncogene family [KO:K07836]
5900  RALGDS; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator [KO:K08732]
23179  RGL1; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator like 1 [KO:K17635]
5863  RGL2; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator like 2 [KO:K17636]
5898  RALA; RAS like proto-oncogene A [KO:K07834]
5899  RALB; RAS like proto-oncogene B [KO:K07835]
5599  MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5602  MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5601  MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
55770  EXOC2; exocyst complex component 2 [KO:K17637]
29110  TBK1; TANK binding kinase 1 [KO:K05410] [EC:2.7.11.10]
5966  REL; REL proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K09254]
5337  PLD1; phospholipase D1 [KO:K01115] [EC:3.1.4.4]
5338  PLD2; phospholipase D2 [KO:K01115] [EC:3.1.4.4]
10928  RALBP1; ralA binding protein 1 [KO:K08773]
998  CDC42; cell division cycle 42 [KO:K04393]
51196  PLCE1; phospholipase C epsilon 1 [KO:K05860] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5578  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5579  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5582  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
9610  RIN1; Ras and Rab interactor 1 [KO:K17638]
25  ABL1; ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K06619] [EC:2.7.10.2]
27  ABL2; ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K08887] [EC:2.7.10.2]
5868  RAB5A; RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07887]
5869  RAB5B; RAB5B, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07888]
5878  RAB5C; RAB5C, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07889]
382  ARF6; ADP ribosylation factor 6 [KO:K07941]
Compound
C00035  GDP
C00044  GTP
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Karnoub AE, Weinberg RA
  Title
Ras oncogenes: split personalities.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:517-31 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nrm2438
Reference
  Authors
Malumbres M, Barbacid M
  Title
RAS oncogenes: the first 30 years.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:459-65 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1097
Reference
  Authors
Cox AD, Der CJ
  Title
Ras history: The saga continues.
  Journal
Small GTPases 1:2-27 (2010)
DOI:10.4161/sgtp.1.1.12178
Reference
  Authors
Cox AD, Der CJ
  Title
Ras family signaling: therapeutic targeting.
  Journal
Cancer Biol Ther 1:599-606 (2002)
DOI:10.4161/cbt.306
Reference
  Authors
Rajalingam K, Schreck R, Rapp UR, Albert S
  Title
Ras oncogenes and their downstream targets.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1773:1177-95 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2007.01.012
Reference
  Authors
Schubbert S, Shannon K, Bollag G
  Title
Hyperactive Ras in developmental disorders and cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 7:295-308 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/nrc2109
Reference
  Authors
Poulogiannis G, Luo F, Arends MJ
  Title
RAS signalling in the colorectum in health and disease.
  Journal
Cell Commun Adhes 19:1-9 (2012)
DOI:10.3109/15419061.2011.649380
Reference
  Authors
Berndt N, Hamilton AD, Sebti SM
  Title
Targeting protein prenylation for cancer therapy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:775-91 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/nrc3151
Reference
  Authors
Overmeyer JH, Maltese WA
  Title
Death pathways triggered by activated Ras in cancer cells.
  Journal
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 16:1693-713 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Rodriguez-Viciana P, Tetsu O, Oda K, Okada J, Rauen K, McCormick F
  Title
Cancer targets in the Ras pathway.
  Journal
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 70:461-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1101/sqb.2005.70.044
Reference
  Authors
Cox AD, Der CJ
  Title
The dark side of Ras: regulation of apoptosis.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:8999-9006 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1207111
Reference
  Authors
Braun BS, Shannon K
  Title
Targeting Ras in myeloid leukemias.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 14:2249-52 (2008)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1005
Reference
  Authors
Pino MS, Chung DC
  Title
The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer.
  Journal
Gastroenterology 138:2059-72 (2010)
DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2009.12.065
Reference
  Authors
Schrader JW, Schallhorn A, Grill B, Guo X
  Title
Activation of small GTPases of the Ras and Rho family by growth factors active on mast cells.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 38:1181-6 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0161-5890(02)00060-3
Reference
  Authors
Ahearn IM, Haigis K, Bar-Sagi D, Philips MR
  Title
Regulating the regulator: post-translational modification of RAS.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13:39-51 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nrm3255
Reference
  Authors
Ehrhardt GR, Korherr C, Wieler JS, Knaus M, Schrader JW
  Title
A novel potential effector of M-Ras and p21 Ras negatively regulates p21 Ras-mediated gene induction and cell growth.
  Journal
Oncogene 20:188-97 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1204053
Reference
  Authors
Goldfinger LE, Ptak C, Jeffery ED, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Ginsberg MH
  Title
RLIP76 (RalBP1) is an R-Ras effector that mediates adhesion-dependent Rac activation and cell migration.
  Journal
J Cell Biol 174:877-88 (2006)
DOI:10.1083/jcb.200603111
Reference
  Authors
Kortum RL, Rouquette-Jazdanian AK, Samelson LE
  Title
Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in thymocytes and T cells.
  Journal
Trends Immunol 34:259-68 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.it.2013.02.004
Reference
  Authors
Roberts DM, Anderson AL, Hidaka M, Swetenburg RL, Patterson C, Stanford WL, Bautch VL
  Title
A vascular gene trap screen defines RasGRP3 as an angiogenesis-regulated gene required for the endothelial response to phorbol esters.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 24:10515-28 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.24.24.10515-10528.2004
Reference
  Authors
Reuther GW, Der CJ
  Title
The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don't fall far from the tree.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:157-65 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0955-0674(99)00071-X
Reference
  Authors
Fernandez-Medarde A, Santos E
  Title
The RasGrf family of mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1815:170-88 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2010.11.001
Reference
  Authors
Iwashita S, Song SY
  Title
RasGAPs: a crucial regulator of extracellular stimuli for homeostasis of cellular functions.
  Journal
Mol Biosyst 4:213-22 (2008)
DOI:10.1039/b716357f
Reference
  Authors
Ory S, Morrison DK
  Title
Signal transduction: implications for Ras-dependent ERK signaling.
  Journal
Curr Biol 14:R277-8 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2004.03.023
Reference
  Authors
Matheny SA, White MA
  Title
Signaling threshold regulation by the Ras effector IMP.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 284:11007-11 (2009)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.R800082200
Reference
  Authors
Lemmon MA, Schlessinger J
  Title
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Journal
Cell 141:1117-34 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2010.06.011
Reference
  Authors
Skaper SD
  Title
The neurotrophin family of neurotrophic factors: an overview.
  Journal
Methods Mol Biol 846:1-12 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-536-7_1
KO pathway
ko04014   

DBGET integrated database retrieval system